Q.1 What is the importance of coal?
A In India coal is abundantly available fossil fuel.
(b) It provides substantial energy needs of the nation.
© It is used for power generation to supply energy to industry and domestic needs.
(d) India is highly dependent on coal for its commercial energy requirements.
(e) It is used as fossil fuel.
Q2 How is coal formed?
A .It is formed due to the compression of plant material over millions of years. It’s different forms depend on the degrees of compression and the depth and time of burial.
Q3 Write about different types of coal
(1) Peat – formed by decaying plants in swamps
--it has low carbon content and high moisture contents.
--It has low heating capacity.
(2) Lignite – is low grade brown coal
--is soft with high moisture content.
--Reserves – in Neyveli in Tamil Nadu.
--It is used for generation of electricity
(3) Bituminous – it is most popular coal in commercial use
--is high grade coal with special value for smelting iron in blast furnaces.
(4) Anthracite – is the highest quality hard coal.
Q. Coal occurs in rock series of two main geological ages in India, name them.
A. Two main geological ages are Gondwana – over 200 million years in age. Major resources of this coal which are metallurgical coal are located in the Damodar valley (West Bengal,Jjharkhand)
Jharia, Rani ganj, Bokaro.
The Godavari, Mahanadi, son and Wardha valleys have also coal deposites.
Asssam , ArunachalPradesh and Naga land.
Q. Why are heavy industries and thermal power stations located on or near the coal fields?
A.Because coal is bulky material which loses weight on use as it is reduced to ash.
Q. What are the uses of petroleum ?
A. it is the energy source.
(b) it provide fuel for the heat and lightning.
© lubricants for machinery.
(d) raw materials for manufacturing industry.
(e) petroleum refineries act as nodal industry for synthetic textile, fertilizer and chemical industries .
Q. Where do we find petroleum ?
A. Petroleum occurrences in India are associated with anticlines and fault traps in the rock formations of tertiary age .
(b) In the regions of folding , anti clines it occurs where oil is trapped in the crest of up fold.
© It is also find in fault traps between porous and non porous rock.
Q. Write about the distribution of petroleum production in India.
A. (1) 63% of production is from mumbai high.
(2) 18% from Gujrat – Ankeleshwar oil field
(3)16% from Assam – Digboi, Naharkatiya and Moran- Hugrijan oil fields.
Q. Why is natural gas called ‘ fuel for the present century’/
A. Natural gas is an clean energy resource.
b)It is used as a source of energy & as an raw material in the petrochemical industry.
c)It is considered an environment friendly fuel because of low carbon dioxide emissions.
d) Power and fertilizers are the key users of natural gas.
e)Compressed natural gas for veheciles to replace liquid fuels is gaining wide popularity.
Q. What do you know about the natural gas reserves in India?
A. Large reserves of natural gas have been discovered in the Krishna- Godavari basin.
b) Gulf of Cambay.
c) Andaman & Nicobar islands.d) Hazira-Vijaypur-Jagdishpur cross country pipeline Mumbai High and Bassien with the fertilizer, power and industrial complexes in western and northern India.