Saturday, August 25, 2007

Assignment on manufacturing industries

Q. Why do we need cement industry?
A. Cement is essential for construction activity such as building houses, factories, bridges, roads airports, dams & for other commercial establishments.
Q. What are the requirements for the cement industry?
A. This industry requires bulky & heavy materials like limestone, silica, alumina & gypsum.
--coal & electric power are needed
--good transportation apart from rail transport.
Q. What do you know about the cement industry of India?
A. The first cement plant was set up in Chennai in 1904.
--the industry expanded after independence.
--decontrol of price & distribution since 1989 & other reforms led the cement industry make rapid advances in production, capacity, process & technology.
--there are 128 large plants & 332 mini cement plants in the country.
--India produces variety of cement.
--the industry has strategically located plants in Gujrat, that have suitable access to market in the Gulf countries.
--the improvement in the quality has found a available market in East Asia, Middle East, Africa & South Asia, besides demand in the country.
Q. What is the importance of the automobile industry?
A. It provides vehicles for quick transport of goods, services & passengers.
--Trucks, buses, cars, motorcycles, scooters, three wheelers and multi utility vehicles are manufactured in India which also bring in the income.
Q. Write about automobile industry expansion .
A. After the liberlisation , the coming of the new & contemporary models stimulated the demand for vehicles in the market which led to healthy growth of passengers cars, two & three wheelers.
--this industry has experienced a quantum jump in lat 15 years.
--Foreign & direct investment has brought new technology and aligned the industry with global developments.
--At present there are 15 manufacturers of passenger cars & multy utility vehicles, 9 commercial vehicles, 14 of two-three wheelers.
--the industry is located around Delhi, Gurgoan, Mumbai, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Indore, Hyderabad, Jamshedpur & Bangalore.
Q. What all comes under electronic industry?
A. The electronic industry covers wide range of products from transistor sets to television, telephones, cellular telecom, pagers, telephone exchange, radars, & mant other equipments which are required by the telecommunication industry.
Q.Which is electronic capital of India?
Bangalore.
Q. List important centers for electronic goods.
A. Bangalore, Mumbai, Dehli, Hyderabad, Pune, Chennai, Kolkata, Lucknow & Coimbatore.
Q. What are software technology parks?
A. these are technology centres which provide single window service and high data communication facility to software experts. There are 18 such technology parks.
Kindly refer to the map given in the book on page-77.
Q. What is the contribution of the electronic &Information technology industry?
A. The major impact of this industry has been on employment generation.
--upto March 2005, the IT industry employedover a million persons & the number is expected to increase eight-fold in next 4-5 years.
--30% of the people employed in this sector are women.
--the industry has been a major foreign exchange earner in last 2-3 years because of its fast growing BOP-Business Processes Outsourcing sector.
--continuing growth in the hardware & software is the key to the success in the IT industry in India.

Q. What is pollution?
A. Presence of undesieable substances in the air, water& on the land is termed as pollution.
Q. How many types of pollutions are there?
A. There are four types of pollutions viz., land, water, air & noise.
Q. What is air pollution and what are its causes ?
A. Presence of high proportion of undesirable gases such as sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide. Air borne particles contain both soild & liquid particles like dust, spraymist & smoke.
CAUSES--smoke emitted by chemicals & paper factories, brick kilns, refineries & smelting plants.
--burning of fossils fuels in big & small factories that ignore pollution norms.
--toxic leakages
--use of coal ,mineral oil,& gas emit lot of smoke.
Q. Writ about the harmful effects of the air pollution.
A. Toxic leakages can have very harmful effects –as happened in Bhopal gas tragedy.
--it adversely effects human health, animals & plant life, buildings and atmosphere as a whole.
--ozone layer depletion is also caused by it.
Q. What are the causes of water pollution?
A. It is caused by organic & inorganic industrial wastes & affluents discharged into the rivers.
--the main culprits are paper, pulp, chemical, textile & dyeing petroleum refineries, tanneries & electroplating industries that let out dyes, detergents, acids, salts & heavy metals.
--discharge of heavy metals like lead, mercury pesticides, fertilizers, rubber etc. in to water bodies is also very harmful.
--fly ash, phospo-gypsum& iron & steel slags are the major siold wates in India
.
Q. What is thermal pollution?
A. Thermal pollution of water occurs when hot water from factories & thermal plant is drained into rivers & ponds before cooling.
Q. What are the harmful effects of thermal pollution?
A. Waters from the nuclear power plants nuclear &power production facilities cause cancers, birth defects, miscarriages.
--soil & water get polluted.
--dumping wastes specially glass, harmful chemicals, industrial effluents, packaging ,salts and garbage
--ozone layer depletion is also caused by it.
Q. What are the causes of water pollution?
A. It is caused by organic & inorganic industrial wastes & affluents discharged into the rivers.
--the main culprits are paper, pulp, chemical, textile & dyeing petroleum refineries, tanneries & electroplating industries that let out dyes, detergents, acids, salts & heavy metals.
--discharge of heavy metals like lead, mercury pesticides, fertilizers, rubber etc. in to water bodies is also very harmful.
--fly ash, phospo-gypsum& iron & steel slags are the major siold wates in India.
Q. What is the cause of noise pollution also write its effects?
A. CAUSE—Industrial & construction activity, machinery, factory equipment, generators, saws and pneumatic & electric drills make lot of noise.
EFFECTS--It can cause hearing impairment, increased heart rate & blood pressure among other physiological effects.
--it results in irritation & anger.
--it is a irritant & source of stress.
Q. How do industries pollute the environment?
A. Industries are responsible for causing four types of pollutions. Polluting industries also include thermal power plants.

They cause harm in the following ways.
--By emitting harmful effluents & smoke into the air.
--Discharging large quantities of chemical waste & garbage into the water.
--Degradation of land.
--Contaminating underground water.
--Around the industries soon slums come into existence & the dwellers openly defecate & have open drainage which pollute the environment.
(explaination to the above points can be taken from the above mentioned questions.)
Q. Discuss the steps to be taken to minimize the environmental degradation.
A. –Minimising use of water for processing by reusing & recycling it in two or more successive stages.
-harvesting rain water.
-treating hot water and effluents before releasing them in ponds or rivers.
-over drawing of underground water resources also pose a threat & need to be regulated legally.
-Pariculate matter in the air can be reduced by fitting smoke stakes to factories with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers and inertial seprators.
-smoke can be reduced by oil or gas instead of coal in the factories.
-machine & equipments can be used & generators should be fitted with silencers
-machinery should be redesigned to increase energy efficiency& reduce noise.
-noise absorbing material should be used apart from personal use of ear plugs & earphones.
Q. What are various stages involved in treating of industrial effluents.
A.--treatment of the industrial effluents can be done in three phases:
a)primary treatment by mechanical means. This involves screening, grinding, flocculation & sedimentation.
b)secondary treatment by biological process.
c)tertiary treatment by biological, chemical & physical processes. This involves recycling of waste water.

1 comment:

chemsquare said...

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