Wednesday, December 17, 2008

work, life and leisure

Bombay the prime city
--the East India company quickly shifted its capital from Surat to Bombay.
--at first Bombay was the major outlet for cotton textiles from Gujrat , later in the 19th c , the city functioned as a port through which large quantities of raw materials such as cotton & opium would pass.
--gradually it also became an important administrative centre in the western India and by the end of 19 th c a major industrial centre.
Bombay became the capital of Bombay Presidencyin 1819, after the Maratha defeat In the Anglo-Maratha war.
--with the growth of trade in cotton & opium, large communities of traders & bankers as well as artisans & shopkeepers came to settle in Bombay.
--the establishment of textile mills led to a fresh sBOMBAY AS THE CITY OF DREAMS:
. Controlling domestic smoke, however, was far more difficulturge in migration.
--the first textile Mill in Bombay was established in 1854. By 1921, there were 85 cotton mills.Large number of workers to these mills came from nearby districts.
--women formed 23% of mill workforce between 1919-1926, after that the number droppedto less than 10%as machines had come.
--Bombay dominated the maritime trade of India.
--Bombay was also at the junction head of two major Railways, which encouraged an even higher scale of migration into the city.
For example during the famine in 1888-89, large number of people drove into Bombay from the dry regions of Kutch.
Q. How was Bombay city planned?
Bombay was a crowded city with average space of 9.5 square yards, with an average of 20 persons.
Bombay was not a planned city and the house especially in the Fort area, were interspersed with gardens.
--in Bombay the FORT AREA which formed the heart of the city in early 1800s was divided between a ‘native town’ where most of the Indians lived, and a European or ‘white section.’
--the European suburb & an industrial zone began to develop to the north of the Fort area, with similar suburb & cantonment in the south. This racial pattern was true of all three Presidency cities.
--rapid & unplanned expansion of the city and growing mills led to the crisis of housing and water supply by mid-1850’s.
--like the European elite the richer Parsi , Muslim & upper caste traders & industrialist of Bombay lived in sprawling spacious bungalows and in contrast, more than 70% lived in the thickly populated CHAWLS of Bombay
--They were multi-storied structures built from 1860’s in the ‘ native’ parts of the town.
--they were like the tenements in London they were largely owned by the private landlords as merchants, bankers & building contractors for quick way of earning money from the migrants.
--chawl was divided into smaller one-room tenements which had no private toilets.
--many families could reside at a time in a tenement, which were of one room with 4-5 occupants.
--people had to keep their windows closed even during the humid weather due to the ‘close proximity’ of filthy gutters, prives, buffalo stables etc.
--water was scarce and there were quarrels over it.
--streets & neighbourhoods were used for a variety of activities such as cooking, washing & sleeping.
--LEISURE ACTIVITIES: -- liquor shops & akharas came up in any empty spot.
--There were magicians, monkey players or acrobats.
--chawls were also the place for the exchange of news about jobs, strikes, riots or demonstrations.
-- at times the jobber settled disputes, organized food supplies or arranged informal credit & also brought important information on political developments.
--people who belonged to ‘depressed classes’ found it even more difficult to find housing or were kept out of many chawls & had to live in shelters made of corrugated sheets, leaves or bamboo poles.
Planning in Bombay was a result of fears about epidemic plague.
--the city of Bombay Improvement Trust was established in 1898, it focused on clearing poorer homes out of the city centre.
--by 1918, Rent Act was passed to keep rents reasonable, but it had the opposite effect of producing severe housing crisis, since landlords withdrew from the market.
--one of the way the city was developed was through massive reclamation projects.
--THE EARLIEST PROJECT BEGAN IN 1784. THE Governor of Bombay approved of building of the great sea-wall which prevented the flooding of the low-lying areas of Bombay.
--the need for additional commercial space in the mid-19thc led to the formulation of several plans, both govt. & private companies for the reclamation of more land from the sea.
--private companies became interested taking financial risks. In 1864, the Back Bay reclamation company won the right to reclaim the western foreshore from the tip of Malabar Hill to the end of Colaba. By 1870’s the city was expanded to about 22 square miles.
--successful reclamation project was undertaken by the Bombay Port Trust, which built a dry dock between 1914& 1918 and used excavated earth to create the 22-acre Ballard Estate. And famous Marine Drive of Bombay was developed..

Bombay appears to many as a ‘mayapuri’- a city of dreams.
--many films in Bombay deals with the arrival in the city of new migrants & their encounters with the real pressures of daily life.
--some popular songs from the Bombay film industry speak of the contradictory aspects of the city, as in CID, Guest house etc.( TAKE SONGS FROM BOOK-PG—145)
Q. When did the Bombay film industry make its first appearance?
Harishchandra Sakharam Bhatwadekar shot a scene of wrestling match in Bombay’s Hanging Gardens & it became India’s first movie in 1896.
--Dadasaheb Phalke made Raja Harishchandra in 1913.
--by 1925, Bombay had become India’s film capital producing films for national audience.
--the amount of money invested was about 756 million in 1947 in 50 films & the industry employed 520’000 people.
PEOPLE: most of the people employed in the industry were themselves migrants who came from cities looking like Lahore, Calcutta & Madras which contributed to the national character of the industry.
--people who came from Lahore than in Punjab were important to the development of the industry.
--many famous writers like Ismat Chughati & Saadat Hasan Manto, were associated with Hindi cinema.
--Bombay films have contributed in a big way to produce an image of the city as a blend of dream and reality, of slums & star bungalows.
Singapore a successful, rich & well planned city, a model for city planning worldwide.Until 1965, Singapore though an important port but had all the problems of a Asain cities. It was overcrowded, lack sanitation, had poor housing & poverty.
Planning was known in Singapore since 1822,but benefitted only a small community of white people who ruled Singapore.
--all this city changed after the city became an independent nation in 1965. Under the leadership of Lee Kuan Yew, the President a massive housing and development programe was under taken and it completely altered the face of the island nation.
--through the planning every inch of the island’s territory was controlled in its use.
--the tall housing blocks, which were well ventilated & serviced were built.
--crime was reducedthrough external corridors, aged were housed alongside their families, ‘void decks’ or empty floors were provided in all buildings.
-migration to the city was strictly controlled.
--news-papers& journals and all forms of communication & association were strictly controlled.
--the citizens of Singapore enjoy a very high degree of material comfort & wealth.
City development every occurred at the expanse of the ecology and environment.
--natural features were flattened out and transformed in response to the growing demands of space for the factories, housing and other institutions.
--large quantities of refuseanmd waste products polluted air & water, while excessive noise became the feature of the urban life.
Widespread use of coal in homes & industries I 19thc England raised serious problems such as :
a)in the industrial cities Leeds, Bradford & Manchester, hundreds of factory chimneys polluted the air—skies were always grey and all vegetation black.
--black fog that descended on towns, causing bad tempers, smoke related diseases and dirty clothes.
1.People joined campaigns for cleaner air, the goal was to control the nuisance through legislation. This was not easy as the factory owners & steams engine owners did not want to spend on technologies that improve their machines.
2. By the 1840’s few towns such as Derby, Leeds & Manchester had laws to control smoke in the city but the smoke was not easy to monitor or measures and the owners got away with minor adjustments to their machinery that did nothing to stop the smoke.
3.Smoke Abatement Acts of 1847-53 did not always work to clean the air.
It too had the history of pollution.
–its people inhaled grey smoke, particularly in the winter.
–since the city was built on the marshy land, the resulting fog combined with the smoke to generate thick black smog.
–high level pollution was the consequence of the huge population that was dependent on the dung and wood as fuel in their daily life.
–the main polluters were the industries & establishments that used steam engines run on coal.
1. Colonial authorities were at first intent on clearing the place of miasmas, or harmful vapours, but the railway line introduced in 1855 brought a dangerous new pollutant into the picture-coal from Raniganj.
--the high content of ash in Indian coal was a problem. Many pleas were made to banish the dirty mills from the city with no effect.
--in 1863, Calcutta became the first Indian city to get smoke nuisance legislation.--in 1920, the rice mills of Tollygunge began to burn rice husk instead of coal, leading residents to complain that the air is filled up with black soot which falls like drizzling rain from morning till night. The inspectors of the Bengal Smoke Nuisance Commission managed to control industrial smoke. Controlling domestic smoke, however, was far more difficult

Monday, December 15, 2008


Work , life and leisure in the cities of contemporary world.
Q. Which were the ancient towns & cities and where did they emerge?
They first appeared along the river valleys, such as Ur, Nippur and Mohenjadaro.
--the ancient cities could only when the increase in food supplies made it possible to support a wide range non- food producers.
--cities were often the centres of political power, administrative network, trade & industry, religious institutions & intellectual activities.
--they supported social groups such as artisans, merchants & priests.
Cities which are great in size & complexity, which are densely settled , which combine political.& economic functions for the entire region, and support very large populations.
URBANISATION: Development of city or town.

--Many decades after the beginning of the industrial revolution, most Western countries were largely rural. The early industrial cities of Britain such as Leeds and Manchester attracted large numbers of migrants to the textile mills setup in the late 18th c.
--London, by 1750’s one out of every nine people living in Wales & England lived in London.
--It was the colossal city with large population which was fast multiplying.
--it was a powerful magnet though it did not have many large factories.
--It was a city of clercks, shopkeepers, small masters & skilled & semi artisans, casual laborers, street sellers and beggars.
--London had apart from the Dockyard five major types of industries: a) clothing & footwear, (b) wood & furniture, (c)metals & engineering, d) printing & stationary ,(e)precision products-as surgical instruments, watches & objects of precious metals.
--during the First world war London also started manufacturing motor cars & electrical goods.
As London grew the crime flourished and soon it became the object of prime concern.
--the police were worried about the law & order
--philanthropists were anxious about the public morality.
--the industrialists wanted a hard working and orderly workforce.
--population of children was counted, their activities were watched & they ways of life were investigated.
--in the mid-19th c Henery Mahew wrote several volumes on the London labour complied the list of the ones who made living from the crime.
--these criminals were in fact those who made their living stealing lead from the roofs, food from the shops and clothes drying on the hedges.
--there were other who others who were more skilled at their trade, expert in their jobs, they were cheats, tricksters & pickpocket and thieves.
--in an attempt to discipline them heavy penalties for the crimes were imposed& work was offered to those who were considered ‘deserving poor.’
Women in the 18th c and early 19th c were employed in factories in large numbers.
--with the technological developments they gradually lost their industrial jobs & forced to work in households.
--a large number of women used to increase family income by taking in lodgers or through such activities as tailoring, washing & making match box making.
--there was once again in the20th c as women got employment in wartime industries & offices, they withdrew from domestic service.
Large number of children were pushed into low paid works, often by their parents.
--it was only after the passage of Compulsory Elementary Education Act of 1870, and the factory acts beginning from 1920, that children were kept out of industrial work.
Older cities like London changed dramatically when people began pouring in after the industrial revolution. Factory or workshop owners did not house the migrant workers.
--individual landowners put up cheap, & usually unsafe, TENEMENTS for the new arrivals.
--better –off city dwellers demanded that slumps be simply cleared away, but gradually larger & larger number of people began to recognize the need for housing for the poor.
Q Why was there an increasing concern for Housing poor?
There were reasons for it:
1.--the vast one room houses occupied by the poor were too small & were seen as the threat to the public health, as they were over crowed & badly ventilated and lacked sanitation.
2.-- there were worries about fire hazards created by poor housing.
3. -- there was a wide spread fear of social disorder, especially after Russian Revolution. Worker’s mass house schemes were planned to prevent the London poor from turning rebellious.
A variety of steps were taken to cleanup London.
1.--Attempts were made to decongest localities.
2.--green the open space, reduce pollution, landscape the city, large blocks of apartments were built.
3.--rent control was introduced to ease the impact of severe house shortage.
4.--the congestion in the 19thc also led to a yearning for clean country air.
--many wealthy residents of London were able to afford a holiday home in the countryside.
--demands were made for new ‘lungs’ for the city .
5. -- some attempts were made to bridge the gap between city & countryside through the Green Belt around London.
6.--Garden City , a pleasant space full of plants& trees, where people would both live & work. This was also to produce better quality citizens.
(Raymond Unwin & Barry Parker designed the garden city of New Earswick.) There were common garden spaces & beautiful views..., but only well-off people could afford them.
London underground Railways partially solved the housing crisis by carrying large masses of people to and from the city.
--the very first section of the underground in the world opened on 10th January 1863 between Paddington & Farrington street in London.
--At first people were afraid to travel underground.
--it was felt that the ‘iron monster’ added to the mess & unhealthiness of the city.
--its construction led to massive destruction..
--in London railway led to massive displacement of London poor, especially between two World Wars.
It became a huge success as the population in the city became more dispersed.
--better planned suburbs & good railway network enabled large number of people to live out side London and travel to work.
--these new conveniences wore down social distinctions and also created new ones.
In thec18th c , the family had been unit of production & consumption as well as political decision making. But the function and shape of family were completely transformed by the life in industrial city.
a) The family ties between he members of households loosened .
b) among the working class the institution of marriage tended to break down.
c) women in the upper& middle class in Britain faced increasingly higher levels of isolation, although their lives were made easier by the domestic maids who cooked, cleaned and cared for children on low wages.
d) women who worked for wages had some control over their lives especially among the lower social classes.
e) family as an institution had broken down.
The city encouraged the new spirit of individualism among men& women and a freedom from the collective values that were the feature of the smaller rural communities.
--but men & women did not have equal access to this new urban space. As women lost their industrial jobs , conservative people rallied against their space in the public spaces, women were forced to withdraw into their homes.
--public spaces increasingly became a male preserve and the domestic sphere was seen as the proper place for women.
--political developments of 19th c as Chartism movement demanding vote for all males and labour movement –limiting hours of workers in factories, mobilized large number of men.
--gradually women did come to participate in political movements for suffrage that demanded the right to vote or married women’s right to property.
By the 20th c the urban family had yet been transformed partly by the wartime work done by women, who were employed in large numbers to meet war demands.
--the family now consisted of smaller units.
--family became the heart of a new market—of goods & services and of ideas.
For the wealthy Britishers there had been an annual ‘London Season’.
1.Several cultural events, such as the ‘OPERA’, THE THEATRE & CLASSICAL MUSICAL PERFORMANCES, were organized for an elite group of 300-400 families in the late 18th c.
2.working classes met in the PUBS to have drinks, exchange news & sometimes to organize political actions. types of large scale entertainments for the common people came into being, some made it possible with the money from the state.
4. LIBRARIES, ART GALLERIES& MUSEUMS were established in the 19th c to provide people a sense of history& pride in the achievements of British.
5. MUSIC HALLS were popular among the lower classes and became great mass entertainment for mixed audiences.
6.British industrial workers were increasingly encouraged to spend their holidays by sea, so as to derive the benefits of the sun and bracing winds.
In late 1887 a riot occurred. Out door work came to a standstill, London poor exploded in riots, demanding relief from the terrible conditions of poverty. It was brutally suppressed by the police.
2. Two years later, thousands of London dockworkers went on strike and marched through the city. The 12 day long strike was called to gain recognition for the Dockworker’s union.
3. Large masses of people could be drawn into political causes in the city. A large city population was thus both a threat and an opportunity.
In 1852, Louis Napoleon III (a nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte) crowned himself emperor and under took the rebuilding of Paris.
--the chief architect of the new Paris was Baron Haussmann, he came up with the forcible reconstruction of the cities to enhance their beauty and impose their order.
--the poor were evicted from the centre of Paris to reduce the rebellion & beautify the city.
--Straight, broad avenues or boulevards and open spaces were built.
--full grown trees were transplanted.
--policemen were deployed, night patrols begun and bus shelters and tap waters were introduced.
I nspite of the views of people that the city was monstrously transformed, Paris soon got converted into civic pride and the new capital became the toast of all Europe. Paris became the hub of many new architectural , social, & intellectual developments.

Wednesday, December 10, 2008



Proto-industrialisation -
first or form of something. It was a part of network of commercial exchanges, controlled by the merchants and the goods were produced by vast number of producers within their family farms.
--In the 18 c merchants from towns & cities began moving to the countryside supplying money to the peasants & artisans to produce for the international markets.
--As demands were increasing, merchants could not expand in the urban areas because of the existing TRADE GUILDS.-(these were the associations of producers that trained the craftspeople, maintained control over production, regulated prices and production and also restricted the entry of new merchants.) Therefore these merchants turned to the countryside.
--Openfields were disappearing & common lands were enclosed & as a result cottagers & poor peasants now had to look for the alternative source of income.
--their tiny plots could not provide work for all members of the household so when merchants offered them advances they readily agreed.
--By working for the merchants the villagers could remain in the countryside & continued to cultivate their small plots.
--income from proto-industrial production supplemented their shrinking income from cultivation.
--it also allowed them fuller use of their family labour resources.
--a close relationship developed between the town & the countryside, as the merchants were based in towns but the work was done in the countryside.
The earliest factories came up by 1730s & they multiplied by late 18th c.
--COTTON FACTORY-its production boomed in late 19thc, this increase was linked to number of changes in the production process as
--series of inventions which not only increased the efficiency of production process but also enhanced the output per worker, enabling the workers to produce more.
--the Richard Arkwright created a cotton Mill.
--MILL-- the costly machines could be purchased, setup and maintained in the Mill. Within the mill all the processes were brought together under one roof & management.This allowed a more carful supervision, watch over quality & regulation of labour, all of which was otherwise difficult in the countryside.
Was it a rapid process?
1.The most dynamic industries were that of Cotton & Metals. With the expansion of transport the demand for Iron & Steel increased.
2.The new industries could not easily displace traditional industries. At the end of 19thc only 20% of total workforce were employed in technologically advanced industrial sector. Historians say that thr typical worker in mid 19thC was not machine operator but the traditional craft person & labourer.
--Textile was a dynamic sector but a large portion was being produced in the domestic units.
3.The pace of change in the traditional industries was not set by the steam-powered industries.
--ordinary &small innovations were the basis of the growth in many non-mechanised sectors as food-processing, building, pottery, glass work, tanning, furniture making & production of implements.
4. Technological changes were slow: it was because:
New technology was expensive & merchants were cautious of using it.
--machines often broke down and repair was costly.
--they were not as effective as were claimed.
It was because in the Victorian Britain there was no shortage of human labour. Poor peasants moved into the cities in search of jobs. So the industrialist had no problem in hiring them at low cost nor were they interested in introducing machines which required large capital investments.
2. In many industries the demand for labour was seasonal . For example Gas works & breweries were busy during the cold months, also the printing & book binders were busy at this time due to Christmas, ships were also repaired during this time.
--in all such industries where production fluctuated with the season, industrialist usually preferred hand labour.
3. Range of products could be produced only with hand labour.
--machines were oriented to produce uniforms, standardized goods for mass market but the demand for goods with intricate design and specific shapes.
4. The upper class-the aristocracies and bourgeoisie- preferred things produced by hands.
--handmade products came to symbolize refinement and class.
--they were better finished& carefully designed and were mainly for export.
5. In the countries with shortage of labour , industrialist were keen on using mechanical power so that the need for human labour can be minimized.
LIFE OF WORKERS: (Negative effects of industrialization)
1--The abundance of the labour affected the lives of workers.
2--the news of jobs led many workers to travel to the cities but the actual possibility of jobs depended upon the existing network of friendship and kin relations. But not everyone had connections, and they had to wait for weeks, spending nights under bridges or in the ‘Night Refuges’ set up by private individuals and at ‘Casual Wards’ maintained by poor law authorities.
3.Seasonality of work meant prolonged period without work. Some returned to countryside and looked for odd jobs.
4. Wages were increased but not welfare of workers. As when the prices rose sharply after the Napoleonic wars wages of workers fell.
--It was the period when number of days determined the average daily income of the workers.
--about 10% of the population was extremely poor.
5. Fear of unemployment made workers hostile to the technology.
As when Spinning Jenny was introduced in the woolen industry , women who survived on hand spinning began attacking the new machines.
Positive results of industrialization:
1. Building activities intensified in the cities, opening up greater opportunities of employment.
2. Roads were widened.
3. New railway stations came up and railway lines were extended, tunnels dug up.
4. Drainage & sewers were laid, rivers embanked.


--Before the age of industrialization silk& cotton goods onlydominated the international market in Textile.
--other countries produced only coarser cotton and finer varieties came from India.
--the Amercian merchants took goods from Punjab to Afganisthan, eastern Persia& Central Asia and the Bales of fine cotton were carried on camel back via the NWFP, through mountain passes across deserts.
--sea trade operated through the per-colonial ports—Surat on Gujrat coast connected India to the Gulf & Red sea ports; Masaulipatnam on the Coromandel coast &Hoogly in Bengal had trade links with the South-east Asian ports.
--A variety of Indian & merchants bankers were involved in the export trade-Financing production, carrying goods & supplying exporters.
--Supply merchants linked the port towns to the inland regions-they gave advances to weavers, procured woven cloth & carried supply to the ports.
--at the ports the big shippers and export merchants had brokers who negotiated the price and bought goods from the supply merchants operating inland.
--by 1750 this network was breaking down.
The European companies gradually gained power first securing a variety of concessions from local courts then the monopoly rights to trade.
--this resulted in the decline of old ports of SURAT &HOOGLY.
--exports from these ports fell dramatically, credit that had financed earlier trade began drying up, and the local bankers slowly went bankrupt.
--while Surat & Hoogly decayed BOMBAY & CALCUTTA grew.
--trade through new ports came to be controlled by the European companies in their ships.
-- those who wanted to survive had to now operate within the network shaped by European trading companies.
Q. How did the expansion of the British industries in India affect the Weavers?
1. INITIALLY THE INDIAN INDUSTRIES DID NOT DECLINE as the Britishers cotton industries had not yet expanded and Indian fine textiles were in great demand.So the company was kenn on expanding the textile exports from India.
2. Befor establishing political power in India-Bengal & Canatic in 1760s&1770s, the Company found it difficult to ensure a regular supply of goods for export.
--the Dutch, the Portuguese as well as local traders competed in the market to secure woven cloth.
--so the weavers could bargain and the try selling the produce to the best buyer.
3. once the Company established its power it could assert a monopoly right to trade. It developed a system of management and control that would eliminate the competition, control cost & ensure regular supplies.
Q. What did English East India Company do to ensure regular supply of cotton & silk? Or to monopolise right to trade?
The company took series of steps:
1.To eliminate the existing traders& brokers connected with cloth trade and to have direct control over the weavers, it appointed GOMASTHA—to supervise weavers, collect supplies& examine the quality of cloth.
2.It prevented the company from dealing with other buyers. One way for doing this was through the system of advances- weavers were given loans to purchase the raw material for their production. Those who took loans had to hand over their cloth to Gomsthas.
A )As the loans flowed the demand for the fine textile expanded& weavers eagerly took advances, hoping to earn more.
b)--some of the weavers had small plots of land which they cultivated along with weaving, the produce from this took care of their family needs. But now they had to lease it and devote all time to weaving which required engagement of complete family.
c)I n many villages there were reports of clashes between the weavers & Gomasthas. This was because earlier the Gomasthas were from the villages who were concerned but now they walked arrogantly with Sepoys in to the villages & punished weavers for the delays.
d)—the weavers lost their space to bargain for prices and to sell to different buyers.
--the price they received from the company was miserably low and the loans they accepted tied them to the company.
e)—in many place the as in Bengal & Carnatic weavers deserted villages and migrated setting up the looms in other villages.
f)-At some place weavers along with the traders revolted opposing the company officials, and many weavers over the time began refusing loans and started closing their workshops and took to agriculture.
Q. Why there was a decline of textile exports from India-?
1.As the cotton industries developed in England, industrial groups began worrying about imports from other countries.They pressurised the govt. to impose import duties on cotton textile so that Manchester goods could sell in Britain without facing competition from outside.
--Industrialists persuaded the Company to sell British manufacturers in Indian market as well. The export of cotton goods increased in the 19th c.
Q. What problems did the Indian weavers had to face when Manchester came to India?
Two problems were:
a)their export market collapsed, and the local market shrank being glutted with the Manchester imports.
--Produced goods by machines at the lower price, the imported goods were so cheap that weavers could not easily compete with them.
b) By 1860’s weavers faced a new problem, they could not get sufficient supply of raw cotton of good quality.
--When the American civil-war broke out & the cotton supplies from the US were cut off, Britain turned to India & as the exports increased the prices shot up.
--weavers in India were forced to buy the it at very high prices.
C) Factories in India began flooding the market with machine made goods.
--In 1855 in Bengal first jute mill emerged.
--in the north India the Elgin mill was set up in Kanpur in 1860.
--the first cotton mill came up in Ahemdabad in 1861.
--1874, first spinning & weaving Mill of Madras.
In the 18th c during the opium trade there were many Indian junior players in this trade.
--having earned through this trade, some of these had a visions of developing industrial enterprises in India.
--capital was accumulated through other trade networks. Some merchants from Madras traded with Burma while others had links with the Middle East & East Africa.
--there were others who were not directly involved in external trade but operated with in India carrying goods, transferring funds between cities, banking money & financing traders. When the opportunities of investment in industries opened up, many of them set up their industries.
1. In Bengal Dwarkanath Tagore had set up six joint stock companies in 1830,s & 40,s.
2. In Bombay Parsis like Dinshaw Petit and Jamsetjee Nusserwanjee Tata built huge industrial empires in India.
3. Seth Hukumchand , a Marwari businessman had set up the first Indian jute mill in Calcutta in 1917, So did the father and grandfather of the famous industrialist G.D.Birla.

--When colonial control tightened, the space for Indian merchants became limited and they were barred from trading with Europe in manufactured goods and were to export only raw materials & food grains—raw cotton, opium, wheat & indigo were required by the Britishers. They were also gradually edged out of the shipping business.
Q. Where did the workers come from?
Factories needed workers and their demand was increasing.
--In the most industrial regions workers came from the districts around. Peasants & workers who found no work in the village went to industrial centres.
(over 50% workers in Bombay cotton industryin 1911 came from the neighouring district of Ratangiri so was in the case of Kanpur Mills.)
--workers travelled great distances in the hope to get work in the Mills.

Q. Why getting jobs in the Mills was always difficult?
Getting jobs was always difficult (a) as number of job seekers was more than the jobs.
(b) entry into mills was restricted.
(c) Jobber ,started demanding money & gifts for getting them jobs.
Q. Who was a jobber?
Industrialist usually employed a jobber to get new recruits. He was often an old & trusted worker who got people from his villages, ensured them jobs, helped them settle and provided them money in the times of crisis.

--European managing agencies dominated industrial production in India& they were interested in certain kinds of products.
--they established tea & coffee plantations, invested in mining, indigo and jute—most of these products were required for export and not for sale.
-- when Indian businessmen setting up their in 17thC, they avoided competition with Manchester goods.
-- yarn was not an important part of British imports & when yarn was imported it was only of the superior variety. The yarn produced in Indian spinning mills was used by Indian weavers or was exported to china.
With the 20thc series of changes affected the pattern of industrialization.
a) As Swadeshi movement gathered momentum people were mobilised to boycott foreign cloth
b) Industrial groups organized themselves to protect their collective interests by pressuring the govt. to increase tariff protection & to grant concessions.
c) From 1906 the export of Indian yarn to china declined as the produce from the Chinese & Japanese mills flooded the Chinese markets and thus the industrialist in India began shifting from yarn to cloth production.
d) First World war created a new situation, with British Mills busy with war production to meet the needs of army , Manchester imports to India declined & suddenly Indian Mills had a vast home market to supply.
e) As the war prolonged, Indian factories were called upon to supply jute bags, cloth for army uniforms, tents and leather boots, horse & mule saddles & a host of other items.
f) Many new workers were employed and everyone was made to work for long hours.
Q. What was the impact of the First World War on the Manchester goods or the Company?
a) Manchester could never recapture its old position in the Indian markets.
b) unable to modernize and compete with the US, Germany & Japan, the economy of Britain crumbled after the war.
c) cotton production collapsed and exports of cotton cloth from Britain fell dramatically.
d) within the colonies, local industrialists gradually consolidated their position, substituting foreign manufacturers and capturing the home market.
Small-scale industries predominate
Factory industries grew steadily and after the war large industries formed only a small segment of the economy.
--most of them were located in Bengal and Bombay, and over rest of the country small –scale production continued.
--only a small section of the industrial labour force worked in the registered factories.
The rest worked in small workshops and household units, often located in alleys and by lanes.
--handicrafts & handloom production actually expanded in the 20th c.
--cheap machine-made thread wiped out the spinning industry in 19thc , weavers survived despite problems.
Q Despite the cheap machine-made goods , wiped the spinning industry the weavers survived. How did this happen?
1.This was partly because of the Technological changes. Handicrafts people adopted a new technology that helped them to improve the production without pushing up the costs. the second decade of 20th c the weavers were using looms with a fly-shuttle, which increased their productivity per worker, speeded up production and reduced labour demand.
3. there were several other innovations that helped the weavers improve their productivity and compete with the Mill sector.
There were two types of weavers one—rich and well to do and the others not so rich.

Q. What were different ways which Britishers used to advertise their products?
When new products were produced people had to be persuaded to buy them .
1. One way to do this was through the advertisements.
--They make products appear desireable and necessary.
--they try to shape the minds of people and create new needs.
--they appear in the newspapers, magazines, hoarding, street walls, television screens.
--advertisements have played a part in expanding the markets for products, and in shaping a new consumer culture.
2. When the Manchester industrialists began selling their cloth in India , they put ‘LABLES’ on the cloth bundles.
-- it was needed to the place of manufacture & the name of the company familiar to the buyer.
-- it was also to be the mark of quality.
-- when buyers saw ‘MADE IN MANCHESTER’ written on the lable they were expected to feel confident about buying the cloth.
The Lables did not only carry words or texts but they also carried images which were often very beautifully illustrated.
--the images ogf Gods & Goddesses regularly appeared on these lables.
--it was as if the association with the Gods gave divine approval to these goods .E xample: the printed image of Krishna or Saraswati was also intented to make the manufacture from foreign land appear somewhat familiar to the Indian people.
In the late 19th c Calendars were also printed to popularize the products.
--unlike the news papers& magazines the Calendars could also be used by the people who could not read.
--they were hung in tea shops & people’s home, offices and middle class apartments.
--in these Calendars also there were images of Gods & Goddesses to sell the products.
--images of important personages, Nawabs adorned the advertisements & calendars which gave the message that if you respect the royal figure, then respect this product and when the product was being used by the royal families its quality could not be questioned.
6. Indian manufacturers also advertised the nationalist message clear & loud. They said that if you care for your nation then buy the products that Indians produce.
--advertisements became a vehicle of the nationalist message of swadeshi.

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