Q. What the super highways?
A. These are the highways with 6-8 lanes to accommodate more traffic.
--These are built on the BOT—built, operate & transfer principle which means that once built they will be operational and incourse of time will be transferred to the govt.
--They are built to reduce time & distance between mega cities.
--they are implemented by NHAI-National Highway Authoriy of India.
Q. List the important super highway projects under taken by India.?
A. There are three super highway road development projects under taken by the govt.
1.GOLDEN QUADILATERAL SUPER HIGHWAYS:
The government has launched a major road development project linking Delhi –Kolkata- Chennai-Mumbai and Delhi by six lane super highways.
2. TheNorth – South corridors linking Srinagar (Jammu & Kashmir) and Kanyakumari (Tamil Nadu).
3. East – West Corridors connecting Silcher (Assam) and Porbandar (Gujarat) .
Q. Discuss the classification of roadways.
A. Roads are classified into six classes according to their capacity.
1- Super Highways – they are build to reduce time and distance between mega cities of India. These projects are implemented by NHAI –National Highway Authority of India.
2- National Highways – they link extreme parts of the country.
--these are primary road systems and are laid and maintained by CPWD – Central Public Work Department.
--no. of major national highways run in north – south and east – west directions.
-- Shershah Suri marg is historical national highway No. 1 between Delhi and Amritsar
3. State Highways – roads linking state capital with different district head quarters are known as state highways
--these roads are constructed and maintained by state public works department – PWD in states and U.T.’s.
4) District Roads – these roads connect district head quarters with other places of district
--are maintained by the zila prashid.
5) Other Roads – rural roads which link rural areas and villages with towns.
--they have received special impetus under Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojna – this scheme has made special provision that every village in the country is linked with a major town in the country by an all season motorable road .
6) BorderRroads –Border roads are on the borders of the country.
---Border Roads Organization, a government of India undertaking constructs and maintains roads in the bordering areas of the country. This organization was established in 1960 for the development of the roads of strategic importance in the northern and north – eastern border areas.
--These roads have improved accessibility in areas of difficult terrain and have helped in economic development of these areas.
Roads are also classified on the basis of type of material used for their construction such as metalled and unmetalled roads. Metalled roads are made of cement, concrete or even bitumen of coal therefore all weather roads unlike unmetalled roads which go out of season in rainy days.
Q.What is road density?What do you know about the road density of India?
A. The length of road per sq. km of area is known as density of roads.
--Distribution of roads is not uniform.
--Density of all roads varies from only 10 km in J&K TO 375km in Kerela with national average of 75 km(1996-97).
Q. What problems are faced by Indian roadways?
A Indian roadways faces number of problems:
a)Considering the volume of traffic & passengers, the road network is inadequate.
--about half the roads are unmetalled & this limits their usage in the rainy seasons.
--the national highways are inadequate too.
--the roadways are highly congested in the cities & most bridges and culverts are old & narrow.
--poor maintainence is yet another problem.