Thursday, September 9, 2010

Forests and wildlife Resources -ch-2-geography

New Term: Biodiversity/Biological diversity : Rich wildlife and cultivated speices, diverse in form &function but closely integrated in a system through multiple network of interdependencies.
In this planet we share immense biodiversity.
‘We human beings along with all living organisms form a complex web of ecological system in which we are only a part and very much dependent on this system for our very existence.’ Justify the statement with the help of examples.
Examples: a) the plants, animals and micro organisms re-create the quality of air we breath, the water we drink, the soil that produces our food .
b) Forests play a very key role in the ecological system as these are also the primary producers on which all other living being are dependent.
India is one of the world’s richest countries in terms of biological diversity & has nearly 8% of the total number of species in the world which are estimated to be 1.6 million.
These flora and fauna are so well integrated in our daily life and are taken for granted by us. Lately, they have been under great stress mainly due to our insensitivity to our environment.
It is estimated that at least 10% of India’s recorded wild flora & 20% of its mammals are on the threatened list. Many of these are categorized as ‘critical’ i.e., on the verge of extinction like Cheetah, pink-headed duck, mountain quail, forest spotted owlet and plants like madhuca insignis( a wild variety of mahua) & hubbardia heptaneuron( a species of grass).
Do you know? Among the larger animals in India 79 species of mammals, 44 birds, 15 of reptiles and 3 of amphibians are threatened.
Nearly 1,500 plant species are considered endangered.
Vanishing forests:
--The forest cover in the country is estimated tobe 637,293sq km, which is 19.39% of the total geographical area. Dense forest:11.48%, open forest: 7.76%; mangrove:0.15%.
--According to the state Forest Report-1999, the dense forest cover has increased by 10,098 sq km since 1997. This increase is due to the plantation by different agencies.& also Report does not differentiate between natural forests and plantations therefore these reports fail to deliver the accurate information.
DIFFERENT CATEGORIES OF EXISTING PLANTS AND ANIMALS SPECIES,.-based on the International Union for Conservation of Natural Resources-(IUCN)
We can classify as following:
1.Normal species: species whose population levels are considered to be normal their survival, such as cattle, sal, pine, rodents, etc.
2.Endangered species: these are the species which are in danger of extinction. The survival of such species is difficult if the negative factors that have led to their decline continue to operate. Example: black buck, crocodile, Indian wild ass, Indian rhino, lion, tailed macaque, sangai( brow anter deer in Manipur) etc.
3. Vulnerable species: species whose population has declined to levels from where it is likely to move into the endangered category in the near future if the negative factors continue to operate. Examples: blue sheep, Asiatic elephant, Gangetic dolphin, etc.
4.Rare species: species with small population may move into the endangered or vulnerable category if the negative factors affecting them continue to operate. The examples: Himalayan brown, wild Asiatic buffalo, desert fox and hornbill,etc.
5.Endemic species: these species are only found in some particular areas usually isolated by natural or geographical barriers.
Example: Andaman teal, Nicobar pigeon, Andaman wild pig, mithun in Arunchal Pradesh.
6.Extinct species: these are not found after searches of known or likely areas where they may occur. A species may be extinct from a local area, region, country, continent or the entire earth. Examples: Asiatic cheetah, pink head duck.
ASIATIC Cheetah:
-- world’s fastest land mammal is a unique and specialized member of cat family and can move at the speed of 112 km/hr.
--Cheetah is often mistaken for a leopard but has distinguishing marks are the long tear dropped shaped lines on each side of the nose from corner of its eyes to its mouth.
--prior to 20th century Cheetah’s were widely distributed in Asia & Africa, today i.e is nearly extinct due to decline in habitat and prey.
--the species were declared extinct in India long back in 1952.
Q what are the negative factors that are causing depletion of flora & fauna?
The greatest damage inflicted on Indian forests was by the colonial period due to the expansion of the railways , commercial & scientific forestry and mining activities.
2. Agricultural expansion is one of the major causes of depletion of forest resources. As per Forest Servey of India. between 1951-1980 over 26.200 of the forest area was converted into agricultural land all over India.
3. Tribal belts especially in North- Eastern & central India, have been deforested or degrated by shifting cultivation (jhum), a type of 'slash and burn' agriculture.
4.Large-scale development projects have also contributed significantly to the loss of forests.
Since 1951, over 5,000 of forests have been cleared for river valley projects, and it is still being continued like the Narmada Sagar Project in MP, which would inundate 40,000 hectares of forests.
5.Mining is another important factor behind deforestation.
Example--The Buxa Tiger Reserve in West Bengal is seriously threatened by the ongoing dolomite mining & it has disturbed natural habitat of many species and blocked the migration route of several others, including the great Indian Elephant.
6.Many environmentalists hold the view that the greatest degrading factors behind the depletion of forests is the grazing & fuel-wood collection & the substantial part of the fuel-fodder demand is met by lopping rather than by felling entire trees.
7. Forest ecosystems are the repositaries of the country's most valuable forests products, minerals and others resources that meet the demand of the rapidly expanding industrial-urban economy.
Q Are the colonial policies to be blamed for the depletion of flora & fauna?
Some environmentalists say that the promotion of few favoured species in many parts of India-termed as "enrichment plantation", in which single commercially valuable speices was extensively planted and other species eliminated.for EXAMPLE: Teakmonocutural has damaged the natural forests in South India and Chir Pine( Pinusroxburghii) plantations in the Himalayas have replaced the Himalays oak and Rhododendron forests.
The Himalayan Yew
It is a medicinal plant found in various parts of Himachal Pradesh and Arunachal Pradesh.
--a chemical compound called 'taxol' is extracted from the bark, needles, twigs and roots of this tree, and it has been been successfully used to treat some cancers, and the drug is now the biggest selling anti-cancer drug in the world.
-- the species are under great threat due to over exploitation.
--lately thousands of trees have dried up.
Q. What are the important factors /causes of environmental degration?
--Habitat destruction, hunting, poaching, over-exploitation, environmental pollution, poisioning and forest fires are the factors which have led to decline in India's biodiversity.
--unequal access, inequitable consumption of resources and differential sharing of responsibility for environmental well-being.
--over-population in third-world countries is often cited as another cause.
Q 'The destruction of forests and wildlife is not just a biological issue. The biological loss is strongly correlated with the loss of cultural diversity.' Discuss/ justify.
Destruction of forests and wildlife - a biological is a loss.
Such loss is strongly correlated with the loss of cultural diversity because
-- such losses have increasingly marginalised & impoverished many indigenous & other forest- resources-dependent communities, who directly depend on various components of the forests and wildlife for food, drink, medicine, culture, spirituality ect.
--within the poor, women are affected more than men.In many societies, women bear the major responsiblity of collection of fuel, fodder, water and other basic subsistence needs.As these resources are depleted the condition of women worsens as sometimes they have to walk a lot of distance to collect these resources., which in turn causes serious health problems for women and negligence of home and children because of increased hours of work which often have social implications.
-- the indirect impact of degration such as severe drought or deforestation-induced floods,ect. also hits the poor the hardest.
--Poverty in these cases is a direct outcome of envrionmental destruction.
Thus forest & wildlife, are vital to the quality of life and environment in the subcontinent.
Conservation of forest and wildlife resources in India.
In the background of rapid decline in wildlife population and forestry has become essential. we need to conserve forests because:
1. conservation preserves the ecological diversity and our life support systems-water,air and soil.
2. it also preserves the genetic diversity of plants and animals for better growth of species and breeding. for example, in agriculture we are still dependent on traditional crop varities.
3. Fisheries too are heavily dependent on the maintenance of aquatic biodiversity.
4. central govt. has also announced several projects forprotecting specific animals, which were gravely threatened, includind the tiger, one horned rhinoceros, the kashmir stag or hangul, three types of crocodiles- fresh water crocodiles, salt water crocodile and the gharial, the Asiatic lion and the others.
Most recently the indian elephant, black buck(chinkara) the great indian bustard(godawan) and the snow leopard etc. have been given full or partial legal protection against hunting and trade throughout india.
Tiger is one of the key wildlife speciesin the faunal web.
--in 1973 the authorities realised that its population was dwindling and that there is major threat to tiger population. 1973' Project Tiger' was launched.
There are 27 tiger reserves in India.
Corbett National park in Uttaranchal, Sunderbans in West Bengal, Bandhavgarh in MP, Sariska wildlife sactuary in Rajasthan, Manas Tiger Reserve in kerala are some of the tiger reserves in India.
--Threat to tiger population is from:poaching for trade, shrinking habitat, depletion of prey base species, growing human population, etc.
--the trade of tiger skins and the use of their bones in traditional medicines, especially in the Asian countries left the tiger population on the verge of extinction
India and Nepal provide habitate to two-third of tiger population and have become prime targets for poaching and illegal trading.


In India much of forest and wildlife resources are owned or managed through the Forest Department or other government departments. These are classified under the following categories:

. Reserved and protected forests are also referred to as permanent forest estates
Maintained for the purpose of producing timber and other forest produce and for protective reasons

Monday, August 16, 2010

Blue Print of Sample paper-SA-1-2010

Time : 3 hours Maximum Marks : 80
TERM-I (1st April 2010 - 30th September 2010)UNIT 1 - HISTORY : India and the Contemporary World II
Sub-Unit 1.2 Economies and Livelihood
4 Industrialization 1850s-1950s (Chapter 4)
5 Urbanization and Urban lives (Chapter 5)
6 Trade and Globalization (Chapter 6)
Sub-Unit 1.3 Culture, identity and Society
7 Print culture and nationalization (Chapter 7)
8 History of the Novel (Chapter 8)
UNIT 2 - GEOGRAPHY : India-Land and People
1 Resources (Chapter 1)
2 Natural Resources (Chapter 1)
3 Forest and Wildife Resources (Chapter 2)
4 Water Resources (Chapter 3)
5 Agriculture (Chapter 4)
1 Power sharing mechanism in Democracy(Chapter 1 and 2)
2 Working of Democracy (Chapter 3 and 4)
1 The story of Development (Chapter 1)
2 The role of Service Sector in Indian Economy (Chapter 2)

Social Science
Sample question paper
Summative Assessment I
Class X
Time: 3hours M.M.: 80
Instructions :
1. The question paper has 36 questions in all. All questions are compulsory.
2. Marks are indicated against each question.
3. This question paper consist of two parts i.e. Part I and Part II. Part I of the question paper contains Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) from serial Number 1 to 16 of 1 mark each. These sixteen questions of Part I are to be answered on a separate sheet provided. This part has to be completed in first 30 minutes only and the answer sheet must be handed over to the invigilator before starting Part II.
4. In Part II, there are twenty questions from serial no. 17 to 36 which are to be attempted in 2hours and 30 minutes. This part should be attempted the stipulated only after time given for Part I.
5. Questions from serial number 17 to 31 are 3 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 80 words each
6. Questions from serial number 32 to 35 are 4 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 100 words each
7. Question number 36 is a map question of 4 marks from Geography only. After completion, attach the map inside your answer book.
Part I
1. In which one of the following years Great Depression occurred in the world?
(a) 1929-30 (b) 1935-36 (c) 1939-40 (d) 1941-42
Who, among the following, improved the steam engine produced by New common?
(a) Mathew Boulton (b) James Walt (c) Henry Ford (d) Grahm Bell 1
Which one of the following is correct about the Annual London Season?
(a) It was meant for wealthy Britishers only.
(b) Organised for an elite group of 300-400 families.
(c) Several cultural events were organised.
(d) All the above 1
2. Which one of the following groups of the countries was known as the 'Central powers' in Europe?
(a) Germany, Russia & France
(b) Russia, Germany & Britain
(c) Germany, Austria-Hungary and Ottoman-Turkey
(d) None of the above
Which of the following group of industries was the dynamic industries of England during its earliest phase of industrialization?
(a) Cotton and metals
(b) Cotton and silk
(c) Silk and footwears
(d) Footwear and glass 1
After reclamation how many islands were joined together to develop the city of Bombay
(a) Seven ( b) Five (c) Three (d) Ten
3. Who among the following developed the first known printing press in the 1430s?
(a) Johann Gutenburg (b) James Watt (c) New Common (d) Marconi
Who among the following is the author of the novel 'Hard Times'?
(a) Leo Tolstoy (b) Thomas Hardy (c) Charles Dickens (d) Samuel Richardson 1
4. The first printing press came to India with which one of the following?
(a) Portuguese Missionaries (b) Catholic Priests
(c) Dutch protestants (d) East India Company 1

Who among the following is the author of the novel 'Pariksha Guru'?
(a) Prem Chand
(b) Srinivas Das
(c) Devki Nandan Khatri
(d) Chandu Menon 1
5. Which one of the following soil types is the most widely spread and important soil in India.
(a) Laterite soils (b) Black soils
(c) Alluvial soils (d) Red and yellow soils 1
6. In which one of the following states, Corbett National Park is located?
(a) Assam (b) Madhya pradesh
(c) Rajasthan (d) Uttarakhand 1
7. On which one of the following rivers Sardar Sarovar Dam is built?
(a) River Kaveri (b) River Krishna
(c) River Narmada (d) River Satluj 1
8. In which one of the following crops, India is the leading producer and exporter in the world?
(a) Jute (b) Tea
(c) Coffee (d) Rubber 1
9. Which of the following minority communities is relatively rich and powerful in Belgium?
(a) French (b) Dutch
(c) German (d) English 1
10. What is the %age of Sinhala speaking in Srilanka? Choose the correct option from the
(a) 58 (b) 74 (c) 65 (d) 82 1
11. Which one of the following countries fall in the category of 'coming together federation'?
(a) India (b) US
(c) Spain (d) Belgium 1
12. Which one of the following does not come under the purview of 'family laws'?
(a) Matters related to marriage
(b) Matters related to divorce
(c) Matters related to adoption
(d) Matters related to robbery 1

13. Among the following criteria which one is the basis to measure the development of a country according to the World Bank
(a) Per Capita income
(b) Literacy Rate
(c) Gross Enrolment ratio
(d) Life expectancy 1
14. Which one among the following is a development goal common to all?
(a) Freedom
(b) Equal opportunities
(c) Security and respect
(d) High levels of income and better quality of life 1
15. Which one of the following occupation is not associated with primary sector
(a) Basket weaver
(b) Gardener
(c) Potter
(d) Priest 1
16. Which one among the following is the most appropriate meaning of Underemployment?
(a) Workers are not paid for their work
(b) Workers are working less than what they are capable of doing
(c) Workers are working in a lazy manner
(d) Workders do not want to work 1

17. Explain the impact of Great depression of 1929 on the Indian economy giving three
points. 3x1=3
Explain any three problems faced by the cotton weavers in India during mid 19th
century. 3x1=3
Explain any three reasons for the expansion of Bombay's (Mumbai's) population in mid 18th century. 3x1=3
18. "Access to books created a new culture of reading." Support the statement giving
three examples". 3x1=3
Explain the contribution of women writers on the writing of novels in India.3x1=3

19. Explain how Martin Luther spoke in praise of print. 3x1=3

Explain the contribution of Prem Chand in the field of novel writing. 3x1=3
20. Explain giving three points how did the print culture develop in India? 3x1=3
Explain the contribution of Rokeya Hossein in the field of education and literature.
21. What is resource planning? Why is the planning of resource essential? Explain any two
reasons. 1+2=3
22. Why do we need to conserve our forests and wildlife resources? Explain any three reasons.
23. Why is the scarcity of water increasing day by day in India? Explain any three reasons.
24. Mention any three provisions of the Act which was passed in Sri Lanka in 1950 to establish Sinhala supremacy 3x1=3
25. Explain overlapping and cross cutting social differences. 1½+1½=3
26. Explain any three factors that determine the outcome of politics of social division. 3
27. State any three facts to show that the women face disadvantage and discrimination in our patriarch society. 3
28. Explain any three different bases of comparison of economic development of different nations / states. 3x1=3
29. Describe any three public facilities needed for development. 3x1=3
30. Explain any three types of unemployment found in India. 3x1=3
31. "Workers are exploited in unorganized sectors in India". Support the statement with suitable examples. 3x1=3
32. Explain the effects of coming of rinderpest to Africa during the close of 19th century.
Explain giving four reasons why did the industrialists of Europe prefer hand labour over
machines during the 19th century. 4x1=4
Why did well off Londoners support the need for building houses for the poor in 19th century?
Explain in four points. 4x1=4
33. What is the main contribution of agriculture to the national economy? Explain any three steps
taken by the Government of India to modernize agriculture. 1+3=4
34. Explain any four features of federalism. 4x1=4
35. How can more employment be created in rural areas? Explain with the help of four suitable
examples. 4x1=4
36. Three features with serial number 1 to 3 are marked on the given political outline map of
India. Identify these features with the help of the following information and their correct names on the lines marked in the Map. 3x1=3
1. Soil type
2. Tiger Reserve
3. The leading coffee producing state
Locate and label the following items with appropriate symbols on the same Map.
1. Hirakud Dam
2. Sunderbans national park
3. The largest producing state of Bajra
Note : The following question is for the Visual impaired Candidates only, in lieu of Q.No. 36
36.1 What is the colour of the arid soils
36.2 Name the Tiger Reserve of Kerala.
36.3 In which state 'Bhairodev Dakar Sonchuri' is developed for protecting the wildlife?

Social Science
Marking Scheme
Class X
Part I
1. (a) or (b) or (d)
2. (c) or (a) or (a)
3. (a) or (c)
4. (a) or (b)
5. (c) 6. (d)
7. (c) 8. (b)
9. (a) 10. (b)
11. (b) 12. (d)
13. (a) 14. (d)
15. (d) 16. (b)
Part II
17. i. The depression affected Indian trade.
ii. Indian imports as well as exports almost halved between 1928 and 1934.
iii. As international prices crashed, prices in India also plunged.
iv. Wheat prices fell by 50%
v. Although agricultural prices fell sharply yet the colonial govt. refused to reduce revenue
vi. The prices of raw jute also crashed to about 60%.
vii. The peasants were under heavy indebtedness.
viii. Any other relevant point.
Any three points to be explained. 3x1=3
i. The export market collapsed and the local market shrunk.
ii. Imported cotton goods were cheaper and Indian weavers could not compete with
iii. Procuring raw cotton of good quality was very difficult because the prices were very
iv. The market was flooded with machine made goods.
v. Any other relevant point.
Any three points. 3x1=3
i. Bombay (Mumbai) developed into the biggest sea port along the Arabian sea coast.
ii. It became the capital of Bombay Presidency.
iii. Large number of cotton textile industries sprang up which attracted lot of labour.
iv. It became the centre of film industry.
v. It provided direct sea link with Europe.
vi. Any other relevant point.
(Any three points to be explained which attracted population to the city) 3x1=3
18. i. Before the printing press the reading of books was restricted to the elites only.
ii. With the printing press a new reading public emerged.
iii. Books reached to the wider section of the public.
iv. With the print the hearing public changed into a reading public.
v. Any other relevant point.
Any three points to be explained. 3x1=3
i. In the earlier stages women began writing stories, poems etc.
ii. In early 20th century, women in South India began writing novels.
iii. Their writings allowed for a new conception of womanhood.
iv. Stories of love showed women who could choose or refuse, their partners and
v. Some women authors wrote about the women who changed the world of both men
and women.
vi. Any other relevant point.
Any three points to be explained. 3x1=3
19. i. Martin Luther wrote 95 theses criticizing many of the practices and ritual of the Roman
Catholic Church.
ii. Luther's writings were immediately reproduced in vast numbers and read widely.
iii. This led to a division within the church and to the beginning of the Protestant Reformation
iv. Luther's translation of the New Testament sold 5000 copies within a few weeks.
v. Deeply grateful to print, Luther said, "printing is the ultimate gift of God and the greatest
vi. Any other relevant point.
Any three points to be explained. 3x1=3
i. Prem Chand's novels are filled with all kinds of powerful Characters drawn from all
levels of society.
ii. The women characters are also strong individuals.
iii. Prem Chand's characters create a community based on democratic values.
iv. Prem Chand's best known work is 'Godan'.
v. It is an epic of Indian peasantry.
vi. Any other relevant point.
Any three points to be explained. 3x1=3
20. i. The printing press first came to Goa with Portuguese missionaries in the mid 16th
ii. By 1674 about 50 books had been printed in Konkani and Kanara languages.
iii. Catholic priests first printed Tamil books in 1579 at Cochin.
iv. In 1713 first Malayalam book was printed.
v. English writing developed much after the coming of English East India Company.
vi. Then Indians began publishing Indian newspapers.
vii. Any other relevant point.
Any three points to be explained. 3x1=3
i. Rokeya Hossein was a social reformer.
ii. She started a school for girls in Calcutta (Kolkata).
iii. She wrote satiric fantasy in English.
iv. It shows the world in which women will take the place of men.
v. Her novel 'Padamarag' shows the need for women to reform their conditions
vi. Any other relevant point.
Any three points to be explained. 3x1=3
21. Resource Planning is the widely accepted strategy for judicious use of resources. 1
1. Resources are unevenly distributed over the country.
2. Some regions are rich in certain types of resources but are deficient in some other
3. There are some regions which have acute shortage of some vital resources.
4. Resources are limited.
5. Resource planning helps in reducing wastage.
6. Resource planning takes care of future generation.
7. Any other relevant point.
Any two points to be explained. 1+2=3
22. Need to conserve forest and wild life resources :
1. Rapid decline in forests and wildlife population.
2. Conservation maintains the ecological balance
3. Forest depletion accelerates soil erosion.
4. Conservation is needed to protect wildlife because wildlife is threatened by man's
5. They provide economic benefits.
6. Any other relevant point.
(Any three reasons to be explained) 3x1=3
23. Reasons of scarcity of water :
1. Rapidly growing population.
2. Rising demand of food and cash crops.
3. Water resources are being over exploited to expand irrigated areas and dry seasons
4. Industrialisation
5. Any other relevant reason.
(Any three reasons to be explained) 3x1=3
24. a. Sinhala to be the official language of Srilanka
b. Preferential policy of Sinhalese in government educational institutions and jobs
c. To foster Buddhism
d. Any other relevant point 3x1=3
Any three points.
25. Social divisions take place when some social difference overlaps with other differences, the
difference between blacks and whites become a social division in the US because they tend
to be poor, homeless and discriminated against. If social differences cross cut one another, it
is difficult to pit one group of people against the other. Consider the cases of Northern Ireland
and the Netherlands. Both are predominantly Christians but divided between Catholics and
Protestants. In Northern Ireland, class and religion overlap with each other. If you are Catholic,
you are also likely to be poor and you may have suffered a history of discrimination. In the
Netherlands, class and religion tend to cut across each other. Catholics and Protestants are
about equally likely to be poor or rich. The result is that Catholics and Protestants have had
conflicts in Northern Ireland, while they do not do so in the Netherlands. Overlapping social
differences create possibilities of deep social divisions and tensions. Cross-cutting social
differences are easier to accommodate.
26. a. First of all, the outcome depends on how people perceive their identities. If people
see their identities in singular, it becomes difficult to accommodate.
b. Secondly, it depends on how political leaders raise the demands of any community. It
is easier to accommodate demands that are within the constitutional framework and
are not at the cost of another community.
c. Thirdly, it depends on how the govt. reacts to the demands of different groups. Minorities
should also be taken care of with the majority.
27. i. The literacy rate among women is only 54% as compared to 76% among men.
ii. Proportion of women among the highly paid and valued jobs is still very small.
iii. The Equal Wages Act provides that equal wages should be paid to equal work but in
practice it is not so.
iv. Parents in majority still prefer to have sons and find ways to have the girl child aborted.
Any three points. 3x1=3
28. Following indicators are generally used for comparison of economic development of different
nations / states :
i. Per capita income : It helps in comparison of the level of development of different
regions within the country or different nations.
ii. Infant Mortality rate : It refers to deaths among children before the age of one year
per thousand children born in a year.
iii. Literacy rate : It measures the proportion of literate population in the 7 and above
age group.
iv. Life expectancy : Average expected length of life of a person.
v. Gross enrolment ratio : For three levels for primary, secondary and higher
vi. Persons living below poverty line (any three) measuring through income and expenditure
Any three points. 3x1=3
29. Public facilities refer to facilities, which a person cannot arrange at individual level, these are
provided by government. Following are the main public facilities:
i. Pollution free environment
ii. Good infrastructure like roads, transport etc.
iii. Collective security for the whole locality
iv. Opening schools, colleges and hospitals
v. Taking preventive steps from infectious diseases
vi. Provision for safe drinking water, sanitation facilities etc.
vii. Provision for public distribution system (or any other relevant points)
Any three points to be described. 3x1=3
30. The three types of unemployment found in India are :
i. Disguised unemployment
ii. Seasonal unemployment
iii. Structural unemployment
iv. Cyclical unemployment
v. Technological unemployment
(Explain any three) 3x1=3
31. i. Workers are paid less wages, there is no job security,
ii. Working conditions are poor.
iii. They have to work for long hours.
They can be protected by making some rules and regulations by the government.3x1=3
32. i. Rinderpest was carried by infected cattle imported by British Asia to feed the Italian
soldiers invading Eritrea in East Africa.
ii. Rinderpest spread like forest fire.
iii. Within few years it affected the whole of Africa killing 90% of the cattle.
iv. The loss of cattle forced the Africans into the labour market.
v. The scarce resources were under the European colonizers who conquered and
subdued Africa
vi. Any other relevant point
Any four points to be explained. 4x1=4
i. There was no shortage of labour at that period of time.
ii. Installation of machinery required large capital investment which the industrialists did
not want to invest.
iii. In seasonal industries only seasonal labour was required
iv. Intricate designs and different samples required human skills only.
v. In Victorian age - the aristocrats and other upper class people preferred articles made
by hand.
vi. Any other relevant point.
(any four points to the explained) 4x1=4
i. Living in unhygienic slums was very dangerous for the poor.
ii. Slums were also harmful not to the slum dwellers but also to the general public.
iii. In slums there was always fear of fire hazards.
iv. After the Russian revolution of 1917, it was felt that the people who are slum dwellers
may not rebel.
v. Any other relevant point
(any four points) 4x1=4
33. Contribution of agriculture
Agriculture has been the backbone of the Indian economy. Its share in providing employment
and livelihood to the population continues to be as high as 63 per cent in 2001.
Steps taken by the Government.
1. Indian Council of Agricultural Research established.
2. Agricultural Universities are established.
3. Veterinary services are provided.
4. Animal breeding centre are opened.
5. Infrastructure like roads, electricity cold storage etc is being developed.
6. Development in the field of meteorology and weather forecast were given priority.
7. Any other relevant point.
Any three points to be explained. 3x1=3
34. a. There are two or more levels of government.
b. The jurisdiction of the respective tiers of government are specified in the constitution.
c. Courts have the power to interpret the constitution and powers of different levels of
d. Sources of revenue of each level of government are specified to ensure its financial
autonomy. 4x1=4
35. More employment in rural areas can be created by :
a. Constructing dams, canals or digging wells in villages.
b. Creating storage facilities and providing transport services.
c. Agro based industries can be set up in rural areas or semi belts.
d. Construction of schools.
e. Making provision for education and health service in rural belts can also result in
f. Promoting rural crafts and rural tourism is also an employment generation proposal.
36. See attached map for answer
For Blind Candidates
36.1 Varies from red to brown
36.2 Periyar
36.3 Rajasthan
Map Work (Question No. 36 & 36 (or)

weightage for SA-1 2010

Monday, June 7, 2010

Anwering the queries--holidays. hw

Harshit I would appreciate if u would consult other sources too as internet, news papres etc. n collect more information n pictures.

Anuj-- u can choose any of the given topics but as i stated above try other sources too..
u r to do projects given in the HW. only.

Tuesday, April 27, 2010

Assignment -Work , life& leisure

Q1. Define metropolises, urbanisation,tenement,chawls, presidency cities, individualism.
Q2.Name the cities which firest appeared near river valleyes.
Q3. Name early cities of Britain.
Q4.Name 5 major industries of London which employed lare number of people?
Q5.why crime was flourishing in London cities?
Q6.Why were 'workers' mass housing schemes were planned in London?
Q7. Which was the premier city of India?
Q8. Which was the world's first largest city?
Q9. Where was first cotton textile mill established in India?
Q10. Which was first Indian movie?
Q11. Who made Raja Harishchandra?
3-4 marks questions
Q1. Write a short note on condition of children in London city.
Q2.What were the reasons of concern to house poor in London city?
Q3.What steps were taken to clean up London city?
Q4. What were the positive and negative results of introduction of underground railways?
Q5. List social changes that were the result of development of cities.
Q6. Short notes on :
a)Family life in 19th and 20th century London.
b)bloody sunday of November 1887.
c)Haussmanisation of Paris
d)Lee Kuan Yew's Singapore
e)'Mayapuri'- city of dreams.
Q7.What were the causes of increasing population in Bombay city in 19th and 20th c.?
Q8.Why Bombay could not accomodate its population or
Bombay did not grow according to any plan. Why?
Q9.What were the living conditions of people living in 'chawls'?
Q10.Who was Jobber?
Q11.What were various sources of entertainment for people living in Bombay?
Q12.Write about state of depressed classes.
Q13.How was land reclaimed in Bombay city ? Mention projects undertaken.
Q14.List challenges to the environment as a result of development of cities.
Q15. What steps were taken to control pollution in the cities?

Saturday, April 10, 2010

Syllabus-Term-I 2010

Class X
UNIT 1- HISTORY: India and the Contemporary World II
Term 1
Sub- Unit 1.2 Economies and Livelihood
4 Industrialization 1850s-1950s (Chapter 4)
5 Urbanization and Urban lives (Chapter 5)
6 Trade and Globalization (Chapter 6)
Sub- Unit 1.3 Culture, Identity and Society
7 Print culture and nationalization (Chapter 7)
8 History of the Novel (Chapter 8)
UNIT 2 (GEOGRAPHY): India- Land and People
Term 1
1 Resources (Chapter 1)
2 Natural Resources (Chapter 1)
3 Forest and Wildlife Resources (Chapter 2)
4 Water resources (Chapter 3)
5 Agriculture (Chapter 4)
1 Power sharing mechanism in Democracy (Chapter 1 and 2)
2 Working of Democracy (Chapter 3 and 4)

UNIT 4 (ECONOMICS): Understanding Economic Development- IITerm 1
1 The story of Development (Chapter 1)
2 The role of Service Sector in Indian Economy (Chapter 2)

Through Project and Assignment in Formative assessment only
1 Tsunami
2 Safer Construction Practices
3 Survival Skills
4 Alternate Communication Skills
5 Sharing Responsibility

Tuesday, March 2, 2010

Anwesr to question asked-Arush/oas

Q.Why were housing schemes planned in London in 20th C?
–With industrial revolution people began pouring and factory owners did not have houses for them
--vast mass of one room houses for poor were serious threat to public health—were badly ventilated & lacked sanitation.
--worries of fire hazards
- -fear of social disorder.
--after Russian Revolution of 1917, ‘workers’s mass housing schemes’ were planned to avoid rebellion from poor.—(page-131)

Q. WHY DID TALUKADARS & LANDLORDS REBELLED? Answer- They were rebelling against them as they demanded high rents and variety of other cesses.
Ques-How did Gutenberg develop printing technology?Page 157 , first para.

Answer on page-(51-52) last para, yellow dotted points.
Q.-Who were the jobbers? Explain their functions.
Page-120, 5th line.
He was an old trusted worker who got people
--people from his village , ensured them with jobs
--provided them houses
--gave them money in times of crisis.
Ques-Why is Bombay known as city of dreams? Give 3 points.
Answer—1. Bombay had urbanized and provided lot of job opportunities.
2.--as it was a film city lot of people went to Bombay to be part of it.
2.--Bombay films contributed in a big way to produce an image of the city as a blend of dream & reality of slums & star bunglows.

Answers to Oas' queries:
Good Evening Mam, Here are my problems-
Q1 Explain-
a) Energy saved is the energy produced.
If only we will save non-renewable resources of energy only then we will be able to produce energy in future.( Explain with the help of example and ways.) page-63 last para.

b) 'Tremble,therefore, tyrants of the world! Tremble before the virtual writer!'
-- Explained in the notes.

c) Industrialisation & Urbanisation go hand in hand.--with the setting up of industry, Urbaniastion follows
--basic infra structure develops
-- and generally industries are also located near cities to as cities provide markets and services such as banking insurance, transport and labour.

Q3- Why inter state water dispute are becoming common with regard to sharing the costs & benefits of multipupose projets , if dams are separately constructed in a state?--it is because river generally flow through many regions and many states are benefitted out of it therefore the dispute over sharing of the benefits.

Q4- If agriculture & commerce are state subjects then why do we have ministers of agriculture & commerce in Union Cabinet?It is mainly because India is an agricultural country and agriculture is our major source of income and we do export agricultural products therefore it is of national concern and therefore in the union cabinet.

Q6- Why Hindi was given the status of official language ?
--it is a mother tongue of 40% of Indians.

Thursday, February 25, 2010

best of luck students.

Glitter Text -

rate a santa ana doctor

Answer to queries

siddharth jain here are the answers to you problems:
Q-1 Why people belonging to the same religion often feels that they do not belong to the same community?
--It is because with in their religion their caste or sect is different. Some times they belong to inferior or superior caste ( as in India) or belong to a different religious sect.

Q-2 How did Romanticsm seek to develop a particular form of nationalist sentiment during 18th century? Explain.
This question is from chapter 1 of history which we have not done, if you are planning to do it notes are there on the blog.
Q-3 Explain with eg. the role of technology in helping to solve the hardships of food availability throughout the world in the late 19 century?
This question is from chapter 4 of history which we have not done, if you plan to do it answer is on page-83.
Q-4 Explain the social changes in London which led to the need for the underground railways? Why was the development of the underground criticised?--Cleaning of London resulted in shifting of many workers away from the city.
--people could only be persuaded to leave the city if means of travelling to the city for work were there and therefore underground railways were a necessary.
It was criticized as rail compartments were filled with smoke, with fumes from gas lamps and were bad for health.
--it had resulted in massive displacement of the London poor.
--also there was a massive destruction because of construction of underground railways.
Q-5 Why a no. of Bombay films were about the lives of migrants.--because most people in the film industry were themselves migrants, who had come from cities like Lahore, Calcutta, Madras.
--they wanted to show in the movies true problems and life of people.

Q-6 How does the existence of a large urban population affect each of the following
a) a private landlord
--now lot of people asked for loans, as migration to cities had resulted in poverty.
b) a police superintendent in charge of law &order-
--as London grew crime flourished, role of police increased- page 129
c) a leader of a political party-many political parties took up cause of terrible poverty. Page—138.

Wednesday, February 10, 2010


Datesheet for Board Exams 2010 - X
05 March--Social science
08 March --German
11 March-- Maths
17 March-- Sanskrit
19 March --Hindi
23 March-- English
26 March --Genreal science
29 March --IT
31 March--Science Practical skills
Posted by lalseema at 7:31 AM 0 comments
Labels: date sheet
Thursday, December 3, 2009

Print Culture Lesson -7(History)
Print technology in East Asia--Japan and China
The earliest kind of print technology was developed in China, Korea and Japan.
--This system was of hand printing.
--From AD594 books in china were printed by rubbing paper against the inked surface of woodblocks.
--there used to be 'accordion book'which used to be folded and stitched at the sides.
--skilled craftsmen would duplicate with remarkable calligraphy.
Imperial state and printed books:
1.China for a long time was the major producer of the printed material.
--china had a bureaucratic system which recruited its personanel through civil service examinations and for this examinination textbooks were printed, under the sponsership of the imperial state and this increased the volume of print.
2.Urban and reading culture
--by 17thC urban culture bloomed in China and uses of print increased. Now it was used by scholars-officials, merchants used for trade information,.
--reading became a leisure activity and fictional narratives, poetry, autobiographics, anthologies of masterpieces and romantic plays were published.
--Wives of scholars-officials published their works and courtesans about thier lives.
3. New technology
Western printing techniques and mechanical presses were imported in the late19thC as Western powers established thier outposts in China.
--Shanghai became the hub of print culture, catering to the Western-style schools.
--Now there was a gradual shift from hand printing to mechanical printing.
Print in Japan:
Buddhist missionaries from China introduced hand printing in Japan around 768-770.
--the oldest book printed in AD 868, isThe Buddhist Diamond Sutra , containing six sheets of text and woodcut illustrations.
--pictures were printed on textiles, playing cards and papermoney.
--Poets and prose writers regularly published their works and books were cheap and abundant.
--Prints of visual material led to interesting practices in the 18 thC in the urban circles as at EDO(mordern Tokyo) hadd collections of paintings depicting elegant urban culture, artists, courtesans and tea house gatherings.
--libraries and bookstores were packed with hand-printed material of various types-books on women, musical instruments, calculations, tea ceremony, flower arrangements, proper etiquttes, cooking and famous places.
Print comes to Europe:--In the 11th C Chinese paper reached Europe via silkroute.
--paper made it possible the production of manuscripts, written by scribes.
--in 1295, Marcopolo, returned to Italy with the knowledge of wooden block printing and this technology started spreading from Italy to other parts of Europe.
--luxury editions were still hand written on Vellum( a parchment made from the skin of animals), meant for the aristocratic circles and rich monasteries, who considered these a 'cheap vulgarities.'
--merchants and students in the university towns bought the cheaper printed copies.
Books becoming popular:
As the demand for books increased, booksellers all over Europe began exporting to many different countries.
--Books fairs were held at different places.
--Production of handwritten manuscripts was also organised in new ways as scribes or skilled handwriters were no longer solely employed by the wealthy people but now by booksellers too.

Woodblock printing-it was gradually becoming more popular, woodblocks were widelyused in Europe to print textiles, playing cards and religious pictures with simple brief texts.

New print technology:
A breakthrough occured at Strasbourg, Germany, where Johann Gutenburg developed the first known printing press in 1430's.

Drawbacks/limitations of the manuscripts:--copying was expensive, laborious and time –consuming.
--they were fragile, awkward to handle.
--could not be carried around easily , there circulation was therefore limited.
Gutenburg and the printing press
He was a son of a merchant who became goldsmith and also acquired the expertise to create lead moulds. Drawing this knowledge, he adapted existing technology to design his innovation. The olive press provided the model for the printing press and moulds for casting the metal types for the letters of the alphabet. By 1448, he perfected the system.
--the first book he printed was the Bible and about 180 copies were printed.
Expansion of print--Printed books first closely resembled the written manuscript in appearance and layout.
--metal letters imitated the ornamental handwritten styles .
Borders were illuminated by hand with foliage and other patterns, and illustrations were painted.
--books for rich had black s pace for decoration on the printed space.
--Each purchaser could choose the design and decide for the painting school for illustrations.
2. Between 1450-1550 printing presses were set up in most of the countries of Europe.
--printers from Germany travel to other countries, seeking work and helping start new presses., with this the book production boomed.
--in the second half of the 15th C 20 million copies of printed books were there in markets and the number kept on increasing.
Shift from hand printing to mechanical printing led to the Print revolution.

The Print revolution and its impact—in Europe:
It transformed lives of people, changed their relationships, influenced peoples perceptions and opened new ways of thinking.
--1.Reading public: new reading public emerged.
--printing reduced cost of books.
--multiple copies could be produced with greater ease and now books flooded markets and readership kept on growing.
2.Culture of reading:--earlier books were restricted to elites only and common people lived in the world of’ oral ‘ culture. Knowledge was transferred orally, texts were read out, ballads were recited, folktales narrated.
--now books could reach out to wider sections.
--now there was a transfer from hearing public to reading public.
3. Reaching to the illetrates:
Rates of literacy was very low in Europe till 20thCand very few people would read books.
--Publishers tried various things to persuade the common people to read books, so they began publishing popular ballads, folktales with illustrations, which were sung in the villages and in the Traverns (places where people would gather to drink, eat food with friends) in towns.
4. Oral culture entered print: line that separated oral and reading cultures became blurred. And the hearing public and reading public became intermingled.
Religious debates and fear of print:
Positive effects

--print created the possibility of wide circulation of ideas.-
-introduced a new world of debates and discussions
--Even those who disagreed could now print and could circulate the ideas,
-- Through the printed message, they could persuade people to think differently, and move them to action.
Negative effects:--Not everyone welcomed the printed book and many were apprehensive of the effects that the easier access to the printed word and the wider circulation of books, could have on people’s minds.
--It was feared that if there was no control over what was printed and read then rebellious and irreligious thoughts might spread.
--the authority of ‘valuable’ literature would be destroyed was the Expression of the religious authorities and monarchs.
Effect on Religion-- Martin Luther wrote Ninety Five Theses criticizing many of the practices and rituals of the Roman Catholic Church.
-- It challenged the Church to debate his ideas.
-- Luther’s writings were immediately reproduced in vast numbers and read widely.
--This lead to division within the Church and to the beginning of the Protestant Reformation.
Print and Dissent
Print and popular religious literature stimulated many distinctive individual interpretation of faith even among little educated working people.
-- In the sixteenth century Manocchio, a miller in Italy,. He reinterpreted the message of the Bible and formulated a view of God and Creation that enraged the Roman Catholic Church. When the Roman Church began its Inquisition to repress heretical ideas, Manocchio was executed.
--The Roman Church, troubled by such effects of popular readings and questionings of faith, imposed severe controls over publishers and booksellers and began to maintain an Index of Prohibited Books from 1558.
Through the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries literacy rates went up in most part of Europe.
-- Churches of different denomination set up schools in villages, carrying literacy to peasants and artisans.
-- As literacy and schools spread in European countries, there was a virtual reading mania i.e people wanted books to read and printers produced books in ever-increasing numbers.
--New forms of popular literature appeared in print, targeting new audiences, Book sellers employed peddlers who roamed around villages, carrying little books for sale.
--There were almanacs or ritual calendars, along with ballads and folktales.
-- In France, were the ‘Biliotheque Bleue.’ Which were low priced small books printed on poor quality paper, and bound in cheap blue covers. Then there were the romances, printed on four to six pages,
--and the more substantial ‘histories’ which were stories about the past Books were of various sizes, serving many different purposes and interest.
The periodical press developed from the early eighteenth century, combining information about current affairs with entertainment. Newspapers and journals carried information about wars and trade, as well as news of developments in other places.
--the ideas of scientists and philosophers now became more accessible to the common people. Ancient and medieval scientists and philosophers now became more accessible to the common people. Ancient and medieval scientific texts were compiled and published, and maps and scientific diagrams were widely printed.( When scientists like Issac Newton began to publish their discoveries, they could influence a much wider circle of scientifically minded readers.)
-- The writings of thinkers such as Thomas Paine, Voltaire and Jean Jacques Rousseau were also widely printed and read. Thus their ideas about science, reason and rationality found their way into popular literature.
TREMBLE, THEREFORE, TYRANTS OF THE WORLD!--Books were a means of spreading progress and enlightenment.
-- Many believed that books could change the world,librate society from despotism and tyranny, and
--books will bring a time when reason and intellect could rule.
-- Louise Sebastien Mercier, a novelist in eighteenth century. ‘The printing press is the most powerful engine of progress and public opinion is the force that will sweep despotism away.’ In many of Mercier’s novels, the heroes are transformed by acts of reading.He proclaimed: “Tremble, therefore, tyrants of the world! Tremble before the virtual writer!’
It meant that rulers, tyrants and despots should fear print as now people could make use of print to express their views, both good & bad against them.
Print culture created the conditions within which French Revolution occurred. Comment
1.Print popularized the ideas of the Enlightenment thinkers collectively, their writings provided a critical commentary on traditions, superstition and despotism.
--they argued for the rule of reason & rationality rather than the custom.
--they attacked the sacred authority of the chruch and despotic power of the state.
--writings of Voltaire and Rousseau were read widely and people who read these books saw world through new eyes--of question, rationality ans criticism.
2.Print created a new culture of dialouge and debate.
All values and norms and institutions were re-evaluat and disscussed by a public
--public recognised the need to question existing ideas and beliefs and with in this print culture, new ideas of social revolution came into being.
3. by the 1780's there was an out pouring of literature that marked the royalty and crticised their morality.
--it questiones existing social order.
--cartoons and caricatures typically suggested that the monarchy remained absorbed only in sesual pleasures while common people suffered hardships.
--litreature led to the growth of hostile sentiments against the monarchy.
was a mass literacy in Europe and large number of new readers were now children, women and workers.
--Primary education became compulsory and children became an important category of readers.
--production of ext books became critical for the publishing industry.
--chlidren press, devoted to the litreature for children alone was set up in 1857 that published old fairy tales folk tales.
--Grimm Brothers in Germany compiled folk tales gathered from peasants and these were edited & anything that was considered unsuitable for children was not included in the published version.
--rural folk tales acquired new forms.
WOMEN:--they became an important as readers as well as writers.
--penny magazines were especially ment for them, manuals teaching proper behaviour and house keeping.
--novels in the 19th C saw women as important readers. Women novelists as Jane Austen, the Bronte sisters, Gorge Eliot--their writings became impotant in redifing a new type of woman: a person with will, strength of personality, determination and the power to think.
--Had ben existing since 17th C, and in 19th C became instruments in educating white -collar workers, artisans and lower middle class people.
--after the working day was shortened in mid-18thC, workers had some time for self-expression. They wrote political tracts and autobiograhpies in large numbers.

Further Innovations--By the late eighteenth century the press came to be made out of metal.
-- Through the nineteenth century there were a series of further innovations in printing technology. By the mid-nineteenth century, Richard M.Hoe of New York had perfected the power driven cylindrical press. This was capable of printing 8,000 sheets per hour. This press was particularly useful for printing newspapers.
-- In the late nineteenth century, the offset press was developed with could print up to six colours at a time.
--From the turn of the twentieth century, electrically operated presses accelerated printing operations. A series of other developments followed. Methods of feeding paper improved, the quality of plates became better, automatic paper reels and photoelectric controls of the colour register were introduced. The accumulation of several individual mechanical improvements transformed the appearance of printed texts.
Printers and publishers continuously developed new strategies to sell their product.
a) Nineteenth-century periodicals serialised important novels, which gave birth to a particular way of writing noels.
b) In the 1920s in England popular works were sold in cheap series, called the Shilling Series. The dust cover or the book jacket is also a twentieth-century innovation.
c) With the onset of the Great Depression in the 1930s, publishers feared a decline in book purchases. TO sustain buying they brought out cheap paperback editions.

Manuscripts Before the Age of Print--India had a very rich and old tradition of hand written manuscripts a Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian, as well as in various vernacular languages.
--Manuscripts were copied on palm leaves or on handmade paper. Pages were sometimes beautifully illustrated.
--They would be either pressed between wooden covers or sewn together to ensure preservation. Manuscripts continued to be produced till well after the introduction of print down to the late nineteenth century.
Manuscripts: negative points
Manuscripts however were highly expensive and fragile.
A) They had to be handled carefully and b)they could not be read easily as the script was written in different styles, so manuscripts were not widely used in everyday life. Even though pre-colonial Bengal had developed an extensive network of village primary schools students very often did not read texts. They only learnt to write. Teachers dictated portions of texts from memory and students wrote them down. Many thus became literate without ever actually reading any kinds of texts.
Print Comes to India
--The printing press first came to Goa with Portuguese missionaries n the mid-sixteenth century.
-- Jesuit Priests learnt Konkani and printed several tracts By 1674, about 50 books had been printed in the Konkani and in Kanara languages.
-- Catholic priests printed the first Tamil book in 1579 at Cochin, and in 1713 the first Malayalam book was printed by them
-- By 1710 Dutch Protestant missionaries had printed 32 Tamil Texts many of them translation of older works.
--The English language press did not grow in India till quite late even though the English East India Company began to import presses from the late seventeenth century.
--From 1780, James Augustus Hickey began to edit the Bengal Gazette a weekly magazine that described itself as a commercial paper open to all but influenced by none.
-- Hickey published a lot of advertisements, including those that related to the import and sale of slaves. But he also published a lot of gossip about the Company’s senior official in India. Enraged by this Governor-General Warren Hastings persecuted Hickey and encouraged the publication of officially sanctioned newspapers that could counter the flow of information that damaged the image of the colonial government.
--By the close of the eighteenth century, a number of newspapers and journals appeared in print.
--Indians, too, began to publish Indian newspapers. The first to appear was the weekly Bengal Gazette, brought out by Gangadhar Bhattacharya, who was close to Rammohun Roy.

Religious Reform and Public Debates
Different groups confronted the changes happening within colonial society in different ways and offered a variety of new interpretations of the beliefs of different religions.
--Some criticized existing practices and campaigned for reform while other countered the arguments of reformers.
-- debates were carried out in public and in print.
-- Printed tracts and newspapers not only spread the new ideas, but they shaped the nature of the debate.
-- A wider public could now participate in these public discussions and express their view, new ideas emerged through these clashes of opinions.
Print against Hindu Orthodoxy
1. Hindu orthodoxy over matters like widow immolation, monotheism, Brahmanical priesthood and idolatry,.
2.In Bengal as the debate developed tracts and newspapers proliferated, circulating a variety of arguments.
3. To reach a wider audience, the ideas were printed in the everyday, spoken language of ordinary people, Rammohun Roy published the Sambad Kaumudi from 1821 and the Hindu orthodoxy commissioned the Samachar Chandrika to oppose his opinions.
4. From 1822 two Persian newspapers were published, Ja-i-Jahan Nama and Shamsul Akhbar. In the same year Gujarati newspaper the Bombay Samachar made its appearance.
5. print encouraged the reading of religious texts, especially in the vernacular languages.
a) The first printed edition of the Ramcharitmanas of Tulsidas, a sixteenth century text came out from Calcutta in 1810.
b) From the 1880s the Naval Kishore Press at Luck now and the Shri Venkateshwar Press in Bombay published numerous religious texts in vernaculars.
--In their printed and portable form these could be read easilyat any place and time.
--They could also be read out to large groups of illiterate men and women.
--Religious texts therefore reached a very wide circle of people encouraging discussions, debates and controversies within and among different religions.
Print did not only publicised conflicting opinions amongst communities and people in different part of India but also Newspapers conveyed new from one place to another creating pan-Indian identities.
Print and Muslims
1.In north India, the Ulama were deeply anxious about the collapse of Muslim dynasties. They feared that colonial rulers would encourage conversion, change the Muslim personal laws. TO counter this, they used cheap lithographic presses, published Persian and Urdu translations of holy scriptures, and printed religious newspapers and tracts.
2.The Deoband Seminary, founded in1867, published thousands of fatwas telling Muslim leaders how to conduct themselves in their everyday lives, and explaining the meanings of Islamic doctrines.
3.All through the nineteenth century , a number of Muslim sects and seminaries appeared each with a different interpretation . Urdu print helped them conduct these battles in public.

New Forms of Publications--Printing created an appetite for new kinds of writing.-- As more and more people could now read, they wanted to see their own lives, experiences, emotions and relationships reflected in what they read.
-- For readers, it opened up new worlds of experience, and save a vivid sense of the diversity of human lives.
-- New literary forms also entered the world of reading short stores, essays about social and political matters. A new visual culture was taking shape.
-- visual images could be easily reproduced in multiple copes. Painters like Raja Ravi Varma produced images for mass circulation.
-- Poor wood engravers who made woodblocks set up shop near the letterpresses, and were employed by print shops. Cheap prints and calanders easily available in the bazaar, could be bought even by the poor to decorate the walls of their homes or places or work. These prints began shaping popular ideas about modernity and tradition, religion and politics, and society and culture.
The 1870s caricatures and cartoons were being published in
--journals and newspapers commenting on social and political issues. Some caricatures ridiculed the educated Indian’s fascination with Western tastes and clothes, While others expressed he fear of social change. as well as nationalist cartoons criticizing imperial rule.
Women and Print in India
1.Women’s reading increased enormously in middle class homes.
2. Liberal husbands and father began educating their women folk at home and sent them to schools when women’s schools were set up in the cities and towns after the mid-nineteenth century.
3. Many journals began carrying writings by women, and explained why women should be educated. They also carried a syllabus and attached suitable reading matter which could be used for home based schooling.
4.Conservative Hindus believed that a literate girl would be widowed and Muslims feared that educated women would be corrupted by reading Urdu romances.
1.Rashsundari Debi a young married girl in a very orthodox household, learnt to read in the secrecy of her kitchen. Later she wrote her autobiography Amar Jibran which was published in 1876. It was the first full-length autobiography published in the Bengali language.
In what women would have to say about their own lives.
2. From the 1860s a few Bengali women like Kailashbashini Deb wrote books highlighting the experiences of women-about how women were imprisoned at home, kept in ignorance, forced to do hard domestic labor and treated unjustly by the very people they served.
3.In the 1880s in present day Maharashtra, Tarabai Shinde and Pandita Ramabai wrote with passionate anger about the miserable lives of upper-caste Hindu women, especially widows.
4.Urdu, Tamil, Bengali and Marathi print culture had developed early, Hindi printing began seriously only from the 1870s. Soon a large segment of it was devoted to the education of women. In the early twentieth century, journals written for and sometimes edited by women, became extremely popular, they discussed issues like women’s education, widowhood widow remarriage and the national movements. Some of them offered household and fashion lessons to women and brought entertainment through short stories and serialized novels.
Punjab too, a similar folk literature was widely printed from the early twentieth century.
5. Ram Chaddha published the fast selling Istri Dharm Vichar to teach women how to be obedient wives.
6. The Khalsa Tract Society published cheap booklets with a similar message. Many of these were in the form of dialogues about the qualities of a good woman.
Bengal, an entire area in central Calcutta-the Battala-was devoted to the printing of popular books. Here you could buy cheap editions of religious tracts and scriptures, as well as literature that was considered obscene and scandalous.
-- By the late nineteenth century, a lot of these books were being profusely illustrated with products and coloured lithographs. Pedlars took the Battala publications to homes, enabling women to read them in their leisure time.

Print and Poor People.
Very cheap small books were brought to markets in nineteenth century Madras towns and sold at crossroads, allowing poor people travelling to markets to buy them.
--Public Libraries were set up from the early twentieth century, expanding the access to books. These libraries were located mostly in cities and towns and at times in prosperous villages, For rich local patrons, settings up a library was a way of acquiring prestige.
--From the late nineteenth century issues of caste discrimination began to be written about in many printed tracts and essays.
-- Jyotibha Phule, the Maratha Pioneer of ‘low caste’ protest movements, wrote about the injustices of the caste system in his Gulamgiri (1871)
-- In the twentieth century, B.R. Ambedkar in Maharashtra and E.V. Ramaswamy Naicker in Madras, better known as Periyar, wrote powerfully on caste and their writings were read by people all over India. Local protest movements and sects also created a lot of popular journals and tracts criticizing ancient scriptures and envisioning a new and just future.
Workers in factories were too overworked and lacked the education to write much about their experiences. But Kashibaba, a Kanpur millworker, wrote and published Chhote Aur Bade Ka Sawal in 1938 to show the links between caste and class exploitation.
--The poems of another Kanpur millworker, who wrote under the name of Sudarshan Chakr between 1935 and 1955, were brought together and published in a collection called Sacchi Kavitayan.
--By the 1930s Bangalore cotton millworkers set up libraries to educate themselves following the example of Bombay workers. There were sponsored by social reformers who tried to restrict excessive drinking among them, to bring literacy and sometimes to propagate the message of nationalism.

Print and Censorship
1.Before 1798, the colonial state under the East India Company was not too concerned with censorship.
-- its early measures to control printed matter were directed against Englishmen in India who were critical of Company misrule and hated the actions of particular Company officers.
-- By the 1820s the Calcutta Supreme Court passed certain regulation to control press freedom and the Company began encouraging publication of newspapers that would celebrate British rule.
--In 1835 faced with urgent petitions by editors of English and vernacular newspapers, Governor-General Bentinck revise press laws.

--After the revolt of 1857, the attitude to freedom of the press changed. Enraged Englishmen a demanded a clamp down on the native press. As vernacular newspapers became assertively nationalist the colonial government began debating measures of stringent control.
-- In 1878, the Vernacular Press Act was passed modeled on the Irish Press Laws. It provided the government with extensive rights to censor reports and editorials in the vernacular press.
From now on the government kept regular track of the vernacular newspapers published in different providences. When a report was judged as seditious, the newspaper was warned, and if the warning was ignored, the press was liable to be seized and the printing machinery confiscated.
--Despite repressive measure, nationalist newspapers grew in numbers in all parts of India. They reported on colonial misrule and encouraged nationalist activities. Attempts to throttle nationalist criticism provoked militant protest. This in turn led to a renewed cycle of persecution and protests.
-- When Punjab revolutionaries were deported in 1907, Balgangadhar Tilak wrote with great sympathy about them in his Kesari. This led to his imprisonment in 1908, provoking in turn widespread protests all over India.

Odiogo Feed