For a long time it was believed that all power of govt. should reside in one person or group of persons located at one place.It was believed that if power was dispersed it would not be possible to take decisions and to enforce them. But these notions changed with the emergence of democracy.
In Democracy people are source of all powers and due respect is given to diverse groups,every one has a vioce in shaping of public policies and therefore political power is distributed among as many citizens as possible.
In modern democracies power sharing arrangements are done in many forms.
1.POWER IS SHARED AMONG DIFFERENT ORGANS OF GOVT.
such as with legislature,judiciary,executive.This is called HORIZONTAL distribution of power as it allows different organs of govt placed at same levels to excercise different powers.Such a separation ensures that none of the organs excercise unlimited powers.Each organs checks the other,which results balance of poer among various institutions.
SYSTEM OF CHECK AND BALANCE...EXAMPLES
As in India even though ministers and govt officials excercise power they are responsible to the Parliament or to the state Assemblies.
Although the judges are appointed by the executive they can check the execution of laws made by legislature.
2.POWER SHARED AMONG GOVERNMENTS AT DIFFERENT LEVELS.
a)A general govt for the entire country is usally called Fedreal government , and in India we call it Central or Union govt.
b)Governments at the provincial or state level--thse govts are known by different names in different countries and in India we call them State govts.
It is not foud in all countries but in country like ours constitution clearly lays down the powers of different levels of government.This is called fedral power, and the same principle is extended to the levels lower than state govts such as municipality and panchayats.This is called VERTICAL SHARING OF POWER.
3.POWER SHARED AMONG DIFFERENT SOCIAL GROUPS
Social groups such as religious and linguistic groups. ‘Community govt. in Belgium is an example of this arrangement.
a) In some countries there are constitutional and legal arrangements where by weaker sections and women are represented in the legislatures and administration.
b) Reserved constituencies are there, as in India.
This type of arrangement gives space in the govt and administration to diverse social groups who otherwise feel alienated from the govt. It gives minorities fair share of power.
4.POWER SHARING AMONG POLITICAL PARTIES, PRESSURE GROUPS
These parties pressure groups and movements control or influence those in power.
a) In contemporary democracies there is competition among different parties which ensures that power does not remain in one hand. Some times this type of sharing is direct when two or more parties form an alliance to contest elections and if the alliance wins they form coalition govt and thus share power.
b) In democracy we have interest groups as of traders, businessman, farmers, industrialists, workers.They also have share in governmental power either through participation in governmental committees or brining influence on decision making process.