Monday, July 14, 2008

DEVELOPMENT--CHAPTER - 1--ECONOMICS

Q. What is development?
A. It means progress. It has many aspects. Different people have prespectives on development.
Q. Why do different people have different notions of development?
A. Different people have different notions of development because life situations of persons are different and therefore their aspirations and desires and goals.
Q. Do the statements mean the same? Give examples to prove.
a)people have different development goals.
b)people have conflicting development goals.
No the two statements differ.
a) People have different development goals means that since people come from different situations therefore their development goals differ as an urban unemployed youth would aspire for a good salaried job,promotions ect. And on the other hand a rural unemployed would want better job oppurtunities in the village, job security and dignity of labour.
b) People have conflicting goals means that development for one may not be development for the other .Their goals may clash.
For example-1. industrialist may want more dams for electricity but this may submerge the land disrupt lives of the people who are displaced-such as tribals, who may prefer small check dams or tanks to irrigate their lands.
2.Landless rural labourers want more days of work &better wages;schools for quality education;no social discrimination and politcal participation whereas the Prosperous farmer wopuld want assured high family income through high support prices for their crops and hard working and cheap labour.
Here if the labour wants high wages and the farmer wands cheap labour their goals clash and are conflicting.

HOW TO COMPARE DIFFERENT COUNTRIES OS STATES?
For comparing countries, their income is considered to be one of the most important attributes.
--Countries with higher income are more developed than the countries with less income.It means that higher income means more of all things that human beings need.
Q. Why do we take average income to compare two countries?
Since countries have different populations comparing total income doesnot tell us what an average person is likely to earn, hence we compare the average income which is the total income of the country divided by its total population.
It is also called per capita income.
Q. What criterion is being used by the World Bank as per World Development Report 2006, in classifying the countries?
--World Bank says that countries with the per capita income of Rs 4,53,000 per annum and above in 2004 are called rich countries and those with the per capita income of Rs 37,000 or less are called low-income countries.
--India comes in the categoery of low income countries because its per capita income in 2004 was just Rs. 28000 per annum.
--Rich countries excluding the countries of Middle-East and certain other small countries are generally called developed countries.







Q. What does this table show?

A- In this Punjab has the higest per capita income and Bihar is at the bottom. If per capita income is used as the measure of development, Punjab Punjab is the most developed and Bihar is the least developed state.

SOME NEW TERMS:


IMR-Infant mortality rate-it indicates the number of children that die before the age of one year as a proportion of 1000 live children born in that year.


LITERACY RATE-measures the proportion of literate population in 7 and above years of age.


NET ATTENDENCE RATIO- is the total number of children of the age group of 6-10 attending school as a % of total number of children in the same age group.



Q What does this table show?
--The first column of the table show that in Kerala out of 1000 children born alive 11 died before completing one year of the age but in Punjab the proportion of the children dying within ne year of the birth is 49, which is nearly 5 times more.
--also per capita income of Punjab is much more than Kerala.
--The last column shows that more than half of the children donot go school.
Q. How is it that the average person in Punjab has more income than in Kerala but lags behind in other crucial areas?
A. The reason is that money cannot buy all the goods ans srevices that we need to live a healthy and happy life. Therefore income by initself is not the only adequate indicator of the material goods & services that citizens are able to use.
Q. Why does Kerala has low infant Mortality rate?
It is because it has adequate provision of basic health and educational facilities.
Which has resulted in better health and nutritional status of the people.

BMI-BODY MASS INDEX
How is calculated?
Take the weight of a person in Kg and then take the height in metres. Divide the weight by square of height, if this figure is less than 18.5 then the person is undernourished and if it is more than 25 than the person is overweight.
--this is though not applicable to the growing children.
Human development report:(published by UNDP)
According to the HDR health and education are the indicators of the development besides food, clothes and shelter.
--HDR compares countries on the basis of educational levels of the people, their health status and per capita income.
SUSTAINABILITY OF DEVELOPMENT:
It means that development which is not only for the present times but is also for the future generations too.
Q. "The earth has enough resources to meet the needs of all but not enough to meet the greed of one". How is the statement relevant to the discussion of the development?
A. this means that there are enough resources to meet the needs of all if they are used judiciously and not over exploited by a few,& depriving the others who need them.
--Over exploitation of resources has led to their depletion.
--Some resources are non-renewable, can not be replenished and will soon get exhausted.
--Therefore with the greed of a few developed and rich countries the other coutries are bound to suffer a shortage of resources.

5 comments:

shweta said...

Thank you very much mam for you'r cooperation

keerthi said...

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thanks to contemporary learning

Anonymous said...

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Anonymous said...

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Priyank said...

Very Helpful information. Thanks ma'am!

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