Wednesday, December 10, 2008

THE AGE OF INDUSTRIALISATION

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

Proto-industrialisation -
first or form of something. It was a part of network of commercial exchanges, controlled by the merchants and the goods were produced by vast number of producers within their family farms.
--In the 18 c merchants from towns & cities began moving to the countryside supplying money to the peasants & artisans to produce for the international markets.
--As demands were increasing, merchants could not expand in the urban areas because of the existing TRADE GUILDS.-(these were the associations of producers that trained the craftspeople, maintained control over production, regulated prices and production and also restricted the entry of new merchants.) Therefore these merchants turned to the countryside.
CONDITIONS IN THE COUNTRYSIDE:
--Openfields were disappearing & common lands were enclosed & as a result cottagers & poor peasants now had to look for the alternative source of income.
--their tiny plots could not provide work for all members of the household so when merchants offered them advances they readily agreed.
RESULTS:
--By working for the merchants the villagers could remain in the countryside & continued to cultivate their small plots.
--income from proto-industrial production supplemented their shrinking income from cultivation.
--it also allowed them fuller use of their family labour resources.
--a close relationship developed between the town & the countryside, as the merchants were based in towns but the work was done in the countryside.
COMING UP OF FACTORIES.
The earliest factories came up by 1730s & they multiplied by late 18th c.
--COTTON FACTORY-its production boomed in late 19thc, this increase was linked to number of changes in the production process as
--series of inventions which not only increased the efficiency of production process but also enhanced the output per worker, enabling the workers to produce more.
--the Richard Arkwright created a cotton Mill.
--MILL-- the costly machines could be purchased, setup and maintained in the Mill. Within the mill all the processes were brought together under one roof & management.This allowed a more carful supervision, watch over quality & regulation of labour, all of which was otherwise difficult in the countryside.
PACE OF INDUSTRIALISATION:
Was it a rapid process?
1.The most dynamic industries were that of Cotton & Metals. With the expansion of transport the demand for Iron & Steel increased.
2.The new industries could not easily displace traditional industries. At the end of 19thc only 20% of total workforce were employed in technologically advanced industrial sector. Historians say that thr typical worker in mid 19thC was not machine operator but the traditional craft person & labourer.
--Textile was a dynamic sector but a large portion was being produced in the domestic units.
3.The pace of change in the traditional industries was not set by the steam-powered industries.
--ordinary &small innovations were the basis of the growth in many non-mechanised sectors as food-processing, building, pottery, glass work, tanning, furniture making & production of implements.
4. Technological changes were slow: it was because:
New technology was expensive & merchants were cautious of using it.
--machines often broke down and repair was costly.
--they were not as effective as were claimed.
Q. WHY WAS THE INDUSTRIAL PROCESS SLOW IN ENGLAND?
It was because in the Victorian Britain there was no shortage of human labour. Poor peasants moved into the cities in search of jobs. So the industrialist had no problem in hiring them at low cost nor were they interested in introducing machines which required large capital investments.
2. In many industries the demand for labour was seasonal . For example Gas works & breweries were busy during the cold months, also the printing & book binders were busy at this time due to Christmas, ships were also repaired during this time.
--in all such industries where production fluctuated with the season, industrialist usually preferred hand labour.
3. Range of products could be produced only with hand labour.
--machines were oriented to produce uniforms, standardized goods for mass market but the demand for goods with intricate design and specific shapes.
4. The upper class-the aristocracies and bourgeoisie- preferred things produced by hands.
--handmade products came to symbolize refinement and class.
--they were better finished& carefully designed and were mainly for export.
5. In the countries with shortage of labour , industrialist were keen on using mechanical power so that the need for human labour can be minimized.
LIFE OF WORKERS: (Negative effects of industrialization)
1--The abundance of the labour affected the lives of workers.
2--the news of jobs led many workers to travel to the cities but the actual possibility of jobs depended upon the existing network of friendship and kin relations. But not everyone had connections, and they had to wait for weeks, spending nights under bridges or in the ‘Night Refuges’ set up by private individuals and at ‘Casual Wards’ maintained by poor law authorities.
3.Seasonality of work meant prolonged period without work. Some returned to countryside and looked for odd jobs.
4. Wages were increased but not welfare of workers. As when the prices rose sharply after the Napoleonic wars wages of workers fell.
--It was the period when number of days determined the average daily income of the workers.
--about 10% of the population was extremely poor.
5. Fear of unemployment made workers hostile to the technology.
As when Spinning Jenny was introduced in the woolen industry , women who survived on hand spinning began attacking the new machines.
Positive results of industrialization:
1. Building activities intensified in the cities, opening up greater opportunities of employment.
2. Roads were widened.
3. New railway stations came up and railway lines were extended, tunnels dug up.
4. Drainage & sewers were laid, rivers embanked.

INDUSTRIALISATION IN THE COLONIES—INDIA

--Before the age of industrialization silk& cotton goods onlydominated the international market in Textile.
--other countries produced only coarser cotton and finer varieties came from India.
--the Amercian merchants took goods from Punjab to Afganisthan, eastern Persia& Central Asia and the Bales of fine cotton were carried on camel back via the NWFP, through mountain passes across deserts.
--sea trade operated through the per-colonial ports—Surat on Gujrat coast connected India to the Gulf & Red sea ports; Masaulipatnam on the Coromandel coast &Hoogly in Bengal had trade links with the South-east Asian ports.
EARLIER:
--A variety of Indian & merchants bankers were involved in the export trade-Financing production, carrying goods & supplying exporters.
--Supply merchants linked the port towns to the inland regions-they gave advances to weavers, procured woven cloth & carried supply to the ports.
--at the ports the big shippers and export merchants had brokers who negotiated the price and bought goods from the supply merchants operating inland.
--by 1750 this network was breaking down.
COMING OF THE NEW COMPANIES:
The European companies gradually gained power first securing a variety of concessions from local courts then the monopoly rights to trade.
--this resulted in the decline of old ports of SURAT &HOOGLY.
--exports from these ports fell dramatically, credit that had financed earlier trade began drying up, and the local bankers slowly went bankrupt.
--while Surat & Hoogly decayed BOMBAY & CALCUTTA grew.
--trade through new ports came to be controlled by the European companies in their ships.
-- those who wanted to survive had to now operate within the network shaped by European trading companies.
Q. How did the expansion of the British industries in India affect the Weavers?
1. INITIALLY THE INDIAN INDUSTRIES DID NOT DECLINE as the Britishers cotton industries had not yet expanded and Indian fine textiles were in great demand.So the company was kenn on expanding the textile exports from India.
2. Befor establishing political power in India-Bengal & Canatic in 1760s&1770s, the Company found it difficult to ensure a regular supply of goods for export.
--the Dutch, the Portuguese as well as local traders competed in the market to secure woven cloth.
--so the weavers could bargain and the try selling the produce to the best buyer.
3. once the Company established its power it could assert a monopoly right to trade. It developed a system of management and control that would eliminate the competition, control cost & ensure regular supplies.
Q. What did English East India Company do to ensure regular supply of cotton & silk? Or to monopolise right to trade?
The company took series of steps:
1.To eliminate the existing traders& brokers connected with cloth trade and to have direct control over the weavers, it appointed GOMASTHA—to supervise weavers, collect supplies& examine the quality of cloth.
2.It prevented the company from dealing with other buyers. One way for doing this was through the system of advances- weavers were given loans to purchase the raw material for their production. Those who took loans had to hand over their cloth to Gomsthas.
RESULTS:
A )As the loans flowed the demand for the fine textile expanded& weavers eagerly took advances, hoping to earn more.
b)--some of the weavers had small plots of land which they cultivated along with weaving, the produce from this took care of their family needs. But now they had to lease it and devote all time to weaving which required engagement of complete family.
c)I n many villages there were reports of clashes between the weavers & Gomasthas. This was because earlier the Gomasthas were from the villages who were concerned but now they walked arrogantly with Sepoys in to the villages & punished weavers for the delays.
d)—the weavers lost their space to bargain for prices and to sell to different buyers.
--the price they received from the company was miserably low and the loans they accepted tied them to the company.
e)—in many place the as in Bengal & Carnatic weavers deserted villages and migrated setting up the looms in other villages.
f)-At some place weavers along with the traders revolted opposing the company officials, and many weavers over the time began refusing loans and started closing their workshops and took to agriculture.
MANCHESTER COMES TO India
Q. Why there was a decline of textile exports from India-?
1.As the cotton industries developed in England, industrial groups began worrying about imports from other countries.They pressurised the govt. to impose import duties on cotton textile so that Manchester goods could sell in Britain without facing competition from outside.
--Industrialists persuaded the Company to sell British manufacturers in Indian market as well. The export of cotton goods increased in the 19th c.
Q. What problems did the Indian weavers had to face when Manchester came to India?
Two problems were:
a)their export market collapsed, and the local market shrank being glutted with the Manchester imports.
--Produced goods by machines at the lower price, the imported goods were so cheap that weavers could not easily compete with them.
b) By 1860’s weavers faced a new problem, they could not get sufficient supply of raw cotton of good quality.
--When the American civil-war broke out & the cotton supplies from the US were cut off, Britain turned to India & as the exports increased the prices shot up.
--weavers in India were forced to buy the it at very high prices.
C) Factories in India began flooding the market with machine made goods.
FACTORIES THAT CAME UP IN INDIA.
--THE FIRST COTTON MILL THAT CAME UP IN India was in 1854.
--In 1855 in Bengal first jute mill emerged.
--in the north India the Elgin mill was set up in Kanpur in 1860.
--the first cotton mill came up in Ahemdabad in 1861.
--1874, first spinning & weaving Mill of Madras.
EARLY ENTREPRENEURS:
In the 18th c during the opium trade there were many Indian junior players in this trade.
--having earned through this trade, some of these had a visions of developing industrial enterprises in India.
--capital was accumulated through other trade networks. Some merchants from Madras traded with Burma while others had links with the Middle East & East Africa.
--there were others who were not directly involved in external trade but operated with in India carrying goods, transferring funds between cities, banking money & financing traders. When the opportunities of investment in industries opened up, many of them set up their industries.
Examples:
1. In Bengal Dwarkanath Tagore had set up six joint stock companies in 1830,s & 40,s.
2. In Bombay Parsis like Dinshaw Petit and Jamsetjee Nusserwanjee Tata built huge industrial empires in India.
3. Seth Hukumchand , a Marwari businessman had set up the first Indian jute mill in Calcutta in 1917, So did the father and grandfather of the famous industrialist G.D.Birla.

--When colonial control tightened, the space for Indian merchants became limited and they were barred from trading with Europe in manufactured goods and were to export only raw materials & food grains—raw cotton, opium, wheat & indigo were required by the Britishers. They were also gradually edged out of the shipping business.
Q. Where did the workers come from?
Factories needed workers and their demand was increasing.
--In the most industrial regions workers came from the districts around. Peasants & workers who found no work in the village went to industrial centres.
(over 50% workers in Bombay cotton industryin 1911 came from the neighouring district of Ratangiri so was in the case of Kanpur Mills.)
--workers travelled great distances in the hope to get work in the Mills.

Q. Why getting jobs in the Mills was always difficult?
Getting jobs was always difficult (a) as number of job seekers was more than the jobs.
(b) entry into mills was restricted.
(c) Jobber ,started demanding money & gifts for getting them jobs.
Q. Who was a jobber?
Industrialist usually employed a jobber to get new recruits. He was often an old & trusted worker who got people from his villages, ensured them jobs, helped them settle and provided them money in the times of crisis.

PECULARITIES OF INDUSTRIAL GROWTH:
EARLIER:
--European managing agencies dominated industrial production in India& they were interested in certain kinds of products.
--they established tea & coffee plantations, invested in mining, indigo and jute—most of these products were required for export and not for sale.
-- when Indian businessmen setting up their in 17thC, they avoided competition with Manchester goods.
-- yarn was not an important part of British imports & when yarn was imported it was only of the superior variety. The yarn produced in Indian spinning mills was used by Indian weavers or was exported to china.
LATER:
With the 20thc series of changes affected the pattern of industrialization.
a) As Swadeshi movement gathered momentum people were mobilised to boycott foreign cloth
b) Industrial groups organized themselves to protect their collective interests by pressuring the govt. to increase tariff protection & to grant concessions.
c) From 1906 the export of Indian yarn to china declined as the produce from the Chinese & Japanese mills flooded the Chinese markets and thus the industrialist in India began shifting from yarn to cloth production.
d) First World war created a new situation, with British Mills busy with war production to meet the needs of army , Manchester imports to India declined & suddenly Indian Mills had a vast home market to supply.
e) As the war prolonged, Indian factories were called upon to supply jute bags, cloth for army uniforms, tents and leather boots, horse & mule saddles & a host of other items.
f) Many new workers were employed and everyone was made to work for long hours.
Q. What was the impact of the First World War on the Manchester goods or the Company?
a) Manchester could never recapture its old position in the Indian markets.
b) unable to modernize and compete with the US, Germany & Japan, the economy of Britain crumbled after the war.
c) cotton production collapsed and exports of cotton cloth from Britain fell dramatically.
d) within the colonies, local industrialists gradually consolidated their position, substituting foreign manufacturers and capturing the home market.
Small-scale industries predominate
Factory industries grew steadily and after the war large industries formed only a small segment of the economy.
--most of them were located in Bengal and Bombay, and over rest of the country small –scale production continued.
--only a small section of the industrial labour force worked in the registered factories.
The rest worked in small workshops and household units, often located in alleys and by lanes.
--handicrafts & handloom production actually expanded in the 20th c.
--cheap machine-made thread wiped out the spinning industry in 19thc , weavers survived despite problems.
Q Despite the cheap machine-made goods , wiped the spinning industry the weavers survived. How did this happen?
1.This was partly because of the Technological changes. Handicrafts people adopted a new technology that helped them to improve the production without pushing up the costs.
2.by the second decade of 20th c the weavers were using looms with a fly-shuttle, which increased their productivity per worker, speeded up production and reduced labour demand.
3. there were several other innovations that helped the weavers improve their productivity and compete with the Mill sector.
WEAVERS:
There were two types of weavers one—rich and well to do and the others not so rich.

MARKET FOR GOODS
Q. What were different ways which Britishers used to advertise their products?
When new products were produced people had to be persuaded to buy them .
1. One way to do this was through the advertisements.
ROLE OF ADVERTISEMENTS:
--They make products appear desireable and necessary.
--they try to shape the minds of people and create new needs.
--they appear in the newspapers, magazines, hoarding, street walls, television screens.
--advertisements have played a part in expanding the markets for products, and in shaping a new consumer culture.
2. When the Manchester industrialists began selling their cloth in India , they put ‘LABLES’ on the cloth bundles.
LABLES:
-- it was needed to the place of manufacture & the name of the company familiar to the buyer.
-- it was also to be the mark of quality.
-- when buyers saw ‘MADE IN MANCHESTER’ written on the lable they were expected to feel confident about buying the cloth.
3.IMAGES:
The Lables did not only carry words or texts but they also carried images which were often very beautifully illustrated.
--the images ogf Gods & Goddesses regularly appeared on these lables.
--it was as if the association with the Gods gave divine approval to these goods .E xample: the printed image of Krishna or Saraswati was also intented to make the manufacture from foreign land appear somewhat familiar to the Indian people.
4. PRINTING CALENDARS:
In the late 19th c Calendars were also printed to popularize the products.
--unlike the news papers& magazines the Calendars could also be used by the people who could not read.
--they were hung in tea shops & people’s home, offices and middle class apartments.
--in these Calendars also there were images of Gods & Goddesses to sell the products.
5. FIGURES OF IMPORTANT PERSONAGES & NAWABS:
--images of important personages, Nawabs adorned the advertisements & calendars which gave the message that if you respect the royal figure, then respect this product and when the product was being used by the royal families its quality could not be questioned.
6. Indian manufacturers also advertised the nationalist message clear & loud. They said that if you care for your nation then buy the products that Indians produce.
--advertisements became a vehicle of the nationalist message of swadeshi.



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