Q. What are the advantages and diadvantages of pipelines?
A. Pipe lines are proving to be very useful even though the initial cost is very high but susequent running cost is minimal.
--it rules out trans-shipment, loses, &loses.
Q. Which are the important networks of pipeline transportation in the country?
A. There are the important networks of pipeline transport in the country:
--From oil field in the upper Assam to Kanpur(UP), via Guwahati, Barauni to Haldia, via Rajbhand, Rajbhand to Maurigram & Guwahati to Siliguri.
--from Salaya in Gujrat to Jalandher in Punjab, via Virgram, Mathura, Delhi & Sonipat. It has branches to connect Koyali (near Vadodra, Gujrat) Chakshu & other places.
--Gas pipeline from Hazira in Gujrat connects Jagdishpur in UP, via Vijaipur in MP. It has branches to Kota in Rajasthan, Shahajahanpur, Babrala & other places in UP.
Q. What are the advantages of water ways?
Waterways are the cheapest means of transport.
--They are most suitable for carrying heavy & bulky goods
--It is fuel efficient & environment friendly mode transport.
Q.What is the difference between inland & overseas waterways?
Inland waterways mean water transport within the country where as overseas waterways means across the seas. India has inland navigation waterways of 14,500 km in length out of whichonly 3,700 km are navigable by mechanised boats.
Q. Which are the inland waterwayas in India and which waterways have been declared as the national waterways by the government?
A.The viable waterways include the Godavari, Krishna, Barak, Sunderbans , Buckingham canal, Brahamani, East-West canal & Damodar Valley Corporation Canal.
Following waterways have been declared as the nationalized waterways of India:
--The Ganga river between Allahabad & Haldia—NW.1
--The Brhamaputra river between Sadiya and Dhubri-NW.2
--The West-Coast Canal in Kerela-NW.3
Q Distinguish between major and minor ports?
MAJOR PORTS—These are big ports which have all facilities for coming & outgoing ships.—
In India we have 12 major ports, Mumbai as the biggest port.
--Management of these ports is the responsibility of the central govt.
--these ports handle 95% of Indias foreign trade.
MINOR PORTS—Those ports which are used for coastal transportation.
We in India have 181 minor ports scattered all along coastline of about 7,500km.
These ports are managed by the respective state govt.
Q. What is the difference between port & a harbour?
A. HARBOUR—it is the stretch of deep water, natural or artificial where ships are stationed & provided protection from rough sea.
PORT—It is that part of the harbour wher e different commercial activities take placelike loading, unloading of cargo & passengers, storage of cargo etc.
Q. Write about various seaports on the western coasts.
A.1—Kandala in Kuchchh was the first seaport developed soon after independence to ease the volume of trade in Mumbai port.
--it is a tidal port.
--it caters to handling of expor & import of highly productive granary& industrial belt stretched across the states of Jammu& Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana Gujrat & Rajasthan.
2.Mumbai port—It is a port with spacious & well sheltered harbour.
3.Jawahar lal Nehru port was planned to decongest Mumbai port& serve as hub port for this region.
4.Marmagao port—in Goa is the premier iron ore exporting port of the country.
--this port accounts for about 50% of India’s iron ore export.
5. New Mangalore port—located in Karnataka caters to the export of iron ore concentrates from Kudermukh mines.
6. Kochi is the extreme south western port, located at the entrance of a lagoon with a natural harbour.
Q. List the ports on the western coast of India.
Tuticorin port in the extreme south eastern port in TamilNadu.
–this port has a natural harbour & rich hinterland.
–it has a flourishing trade handling of a large variety of cargos to even our neighbouring countries like Srilanka, Mladieves, etc. & the coastal regions of India.
Chennai is the one od the oldest artificial ports of the country.
–it is ranked next to Mumbai in case of volume of trade & cargo.
Vishakhapatnam is the deepest landlocked & well protected port.
--it was originally conceived as an outlet for iron ore exports.
Pardip port located in Orissa, specializes in the export of iron ore.
Kolkata is an inland riverine port.
--it serves as a large hinterland of of Ganga-Bhramaputra basin.
--is a tidal port, requires constant dredging of Hoogly.
6.Haldia port was developed as a subsidiary to relieve Kolkata port of the growing pressure.
Q. What are the advantages of Airways?
Air travel today is the fastest means of transport.
–it is the most comfortable and prestigious mode of transport.
–it can cover difficult terrains like high mountains, dreary deserts, dense forests and long and oceanic stretches with great ease.
–the North-Eastern parts of our country have become accessible only because of airways.
Q. Why is air travel preferred in the north –eastern states?
A. North-Eastern parts of the country are marked with the presence of big rivers, dissected relief, dense forests and frequent floods and international frontiers etc.
These parts of India have become accessible only because of air travel.
Q.what do you know about working of the airways?
The air transport was nationalized in 1953.
--Airways are two types—Domestic & International.
DOMESTIC—On the operational side Indian airlines, Alliance Air(subsidy of Indian airlines), private scheduled airlines &non-scheduled operators provide domestic air services. Indian airlines operations have also been extended to the neighbouring countries of South & South-east Asia and the Middle east.
INTERNATIONAL==AirIndia, various private airlines are operating.
HELICOPTER SERVICES-- Pawanhans Ltd. Provides helicopter services to ONGC. In its offshore operations, to the inaccessible areas & difficult terrains of north-eastern states & interior parts of J&K, Himachal Pradesh & Uttaranchal.
Q. What are the disadvantages that the airways suffer from?
A. Air travel is not with in the reach of the common people.
--it is an expensive mode of transportation.
--India does not manufacture its own aircrafts, we import them.